The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh and the Punjab, 1707-48
Oxford University Press, 1986 - 365 pages
The collapse of the Mughal empire has often been characterized as a period of political fragmentation, social unrest, and economic decay. Contrasting two regions in north India--Awadh and the Punjab--Muzaffar Alam contends that even as the empire declined, there emerged a new, regionally-based political order, maintained and controlled by former Mughal rulers. From agrarian uprisings to the jagiardari system, the Sikhs to the Zamindars, this book presents a bold new interpretation of an important transition in Indian government.
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Breakdown of Imperial Organization
The Changing Position of the Governor
The Zamindars the Madadi Maash Holders
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Abd-us-Samad According administration Afghans Akhbarat Allahabad amil Amir appears appointed areas army associates authority Awadh Bahadur Banda began Benaras Burhan-ul-Mulk centre Chapter chief collection Compare court death decline Delhi deputy developments directed disturbances diwan earlier early eighteenth century emperor evidence existing Farrukh Siyar faujdar further governor governorship grants hand held hills History holders Husain Ibid ijara imperial important India instance interests jagir jagirdars Kamwar Khan's Lahore land Later letters Lucknow madad-i ma‘ash mahals Marathas Mughal Mughal empire Muhammad Muhammad Khan namely nobility nobles noted pargana period Persian political position problems province Punjab Raja region reign relations remained reported resistance revenue rise rule Safdar Jang Saiyid sarkar seems seventeenth century Shah Shaikh showed Sikhs Singh social sources strength suba Subsequently territory took town tried villages wazir zamindars