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Mr. Chairman, it is a well-known fact that the American Legion during its 40 years of service to God and country has supported Universal Military Training for the young men of the United States as a means of maintaining an alert reservoir of trained men to fight for the ideals of our great Nation. Time proved the value of the American Legion's position. Three times in the space of two generations immediate mobilization of our fighting strength has been necessitated to preserve our way of life.

We have, in fact, no reason to believe that another immediate mobilization will not be necessitated in the future.

On September 13, 1958, Gen. Maxwell Taylor pointed out, in a speech to the United States Conference of Mayors: "We are facing a long period of tension wherein our national military posture must be maintained, even at great effort. We have assumed responsibilities as a Nation which we cannot put down. * * *”

In the face of Communist imperialism, it is the feeling of the American Legion that a most important part of our military posture is the training of our young men. A few days ago, Charles C. Finucane, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower, came before this committee to request an extension of 4 years for the draft.

Mr. Finucane said all branches of service had a firm objective of filling manpower needs by voluntary means. But despite this objective, Mr. Finucane said, the Army needs to draft men to maintain its full authorized strength.

Mr. Chairman, it should be pointed out that the documented information from the archives, preserved for future generations by historians of the past, reveals, from Civil War days to present time, that without some form of compulsory induction our Armed Forces have not been able to maintain their required strength. It is said that many of the young men who enlist in various branches of the service do so because of the existence of selective service.

In World War I, 312 months elapsed between the passage of the act of May 18, 1917, and the induction of the first man; and about 412 months elapsed before the System supplied men in substantial numbers.

The slogan of World War I was that we "fought the war to end all wars." In 1939. however, we started construction of war plants in preparation of World War II. Then in 1940, came the first peacetime draft, inducting men for 1 year, but most of them stayed for the "duration plus,” because of World War II.

Under the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, 2 months and 2 days was required from the time the act was signed until the first man was inducted on November 18, 1940.

Fortunately for the United States, Congress enacted the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. Thousands of men were already in training at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Otherwise, this Nation would have been thrown into World War II totally unprepared.

The President recommended on March 3, 1947, that the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 be allowed to expire on March 31, 1947. Within a year the President requested Congress to reenact the law.

During that year the Armed Forces with all-out recruiting and many inducements and professional campaigns succeeded in raising and maintaining the largest voluntary force in the Nation's history. Even so, this force numbered only 1,384,500 men. Early in 1948 it became apparent that a force of at least 2,005,882 men was needed for minimum defense of our Nation.

In considering the 1948 act, the House Armed Services Committee noted that the Navy and Air Force could maintain their March 1948 strength by voluntary means; the Army could not.

When the Secretary of Defense appeared in 1948 before the House Committee on Armed Services he said:

"* * * Viewing the bill from the standpoint of national security as a whole, the simple fact is that we must have selective service

Mr. Chairman, the American Legion respectfully submits that the situation has not changed since that time. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower has just stated in essence that the same situation now exists with respect to recruitment.

So, after a year of attempting to do without a selective service law, the Congress and the Nation came to realize that we could no better afford to be without selective service in a time of "cold war” than in a time of "hot war." The threat which prompted the enactment of the law in 1948 was at that time just emerging. Few would argue that the world is a more secure place today than it was in March of 1948.

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The nature of the threat presently precludes any or little warning in case of attack. In the event war comes as it is often pictured, a widespread nuclear attack without warning, the Nation's legislative processes very likely would be paralyzed and the authorization of a manpower procurement system would be hampered and delayed.

It has been said, Mr. Chairman, that as a byproduct of World War II and the Korean war, we have in the United States some 22,700,000 veterans. ple argue that this provides an adequate reservoir of trained men.

What these people overlook is the fact that over 13 million of them are over 36 years of age.

Mr. Chairman, military experts have come before this committee since hearings began in the 86th Congress to plead the case of an extended draft law. The American Legion is the largest veterans' organization in the Nation and we feel compelled to speak for our members on vital matters affecting the general welfare of the United States.

The American Legion is grateful to this distinguished committee for this opportunity to express the views of its members, and we respectfully recommend that the Congress extend the power to induct to July 1, 1963, as set forth in H.R. 2260.

STATEMENT OF MILITARY ORDER OF WORLD WARS

We consider continuation of induction authority necessary to insure that the strengths of the Active and Reserve Forces may be maintained at the levels necessary for national security. It permits us a defense posture in an uncertain world, which assures our allies and friends that we will not desert them and serves notice to possible aggressors of our intentions to remain ready and strong.

The Nation's past experience in trying to maintain forces at levels consistent with the requirements of today or the foreseeable future is convincing evidence that the military manpower requirements could not be met without induction of registrants under the Universal Military Training and Service Act and the stimulus the act has on voluntary enlistments.

We feel that aside from providing the force in being and the reserve structure necessary for national security the act is responsible for countless peripheral contributions to individual and national well-being.

The services of our youth in the Armed Forces fosters leadership, develops character, promotes health and well-being, and creates a greater responsibility of citizenship. These attributes benefit the citizen and are vital to our national welfare. Those who do not serve in uniform and are channeled through deferment into carriers of science, medicine, engineering, and teaching add to the health, safety, and welfare of the Nation.

The Military Order of World Wars endorses H.R. 2260 and considers it to be vital to the national security and interest. Accordingly, we respectfully urge your favorable consideration of this vital legislation by this committee.

THOMAS H. KING, Chairman, Legislative Committee.

MILITARY ORDER OF THE WORLD WARS RESOLUTION

Whereas section 17(c) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act (62 Stat. 625), as amended, provides that no person shall be inducted into the Armed Forces under that act after July 1, 1959, with the exception of persons whose deferments under section 6 of such act have ceased to exist; and

Whereas selective service is based on the accepted principle of the universal obligation and privilege of all citizens to defend this Nation; and

Whereas the impending termination of induction authority under the aforesaid act will leave our Nation without an effective obligaton for every young man to serve his country in a military capacity; and

Whereas the continuance of authority to induct all persons liable therefor under the aforesaid act is essential to insure the maintenance of the required strength of the Armed Forces since voluntary enlistments in such forces and their Reserve components are greatly stimulated and influenced by the mere existence of that induction authority; and

Whereas the existence of full induction authority enables the Selective Service System (1) to insure that the required strength of the active Armed Forces be maintained both directly by inductions and indirectly by stimulating enlistments, (2) to assist in maintaining the required strength of the Reserve forces by deferring inductions of members who serve satisfactorily, and (3) by classifications deferring induction, to channel men possessing critical skills or the requisite ability to acquire them into essential activities and occupations including engineering, scientific and technical pursuits and teaching, and the study and preparation for such fields; and

Whereas the Selective Service System maintains through registration an inventory of all men of military age including the only inventory of veterans no longer in the Armed Forces who in an emergency might be needed quickly for augmentation of those forces, and keeps current the availability for order to active duty in time of emergency of over a million members of the Standby Reserve; and

Whereas Selective Service has become an integral part of the Nation's defense and the Selective Service System, by its decentralized system of operation through over 4,000 local and appeal boards in every community made up of local citizens, has earned and enjoys the confidence of the overwhelming majority of the American people; and

Whereas the local boards of the Selective Service System in every community of this Nation would render invaluable service in the event of an all-out emergency because of their ability to furnish manpower at local levels to any agency authorized to requisition men for specific duties, and

Whereas some 40,000 of the 46,000 full and part-time officers and employees of the Selective Service System have volunteered their services to the Government and receive no compensation; and

Whereas the cost of operating the Selective Service System is only about 16 cents per year for every man, woman and child in this Nation: Therefore be it

Resolved by the Military Order of the World Wars in convention assembled in San Juan, P.R. this 24th day of October 1958, That section 17(c) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act (62 Stat. 625), as amended, be further amended so that all the authority to induct persons into the Armed Forces now provided by that Act will be extended until July 1, 1963, and that the Military Order of the World Wars use all of its efforts and influence to this end.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the Military Order of the World Wars to be affixed this 24th day of October 1958.

ROBERT G. KALES, Commander, USNR (Retired), Commander in Chief. By the Commander in Chief.

HARRY F. McCULLAH, Commander, USN (Retired), Secretary General

VETERANS OF FOREIGN WARS OF THE UNITED STATES,

Kansas City, Mo., January 28, 1959. Re H.R. 2260 Hon. CARL VINSON, Chairman, House'Armed Services Committee, House Office Building, Washing

ton, D.C. DEAB Mr. VINSON: This is to express the interest and approval of the National Organization of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States with respect to your bill, H.R. 2260, which would extend the Military Draft Act until June 1963, and for other purposes. Resolution No. 121, adopted by the 59th annual national convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars in August 1958, strongly recommends extension of the Universal Military Training and Service Act to July 1, 1963, and is the basis for our support of your bill H.R. 2260. We believe that under existing world tensions it is necessary to provide the Department of Defense with the necessary machinery to keep our Armed Forces up to an agreed strength by use of the draft if volunteer enlistments are insufficient.

We hope the House Armed Services Committee will promptly report H.R. 2260 and that it will be approved by the House of Representatives and the United States Senate and signed by the President. Respectfully yours,

OMAR B. KETCHUM, Director.

NATIONAL COUNCIL AGAINST CONSCRIPTION,

Nyack, N.Y., January 27, 1959. Representative CARL VINSON, Chairman, House Armed Services Committee, House Office Building, Washing

ton, D.C. DEAR Mr. VINSON : I would appreciate it if you would insert in the record of the hearings and thus make available to members of the Armed Services Committee and Congress the enclosed statement on bebalf of the National Council Against Conscription.

The National Council Against. Conscription was organized in 1945 by leaders in farm, church, labor, and educational groups to oppose attempts to extend peacetime military conscription in the United States. Dr. Alonzo F. Myers, the chairman of the Department of Higher Education of New York University, is the chairman of our council and I have been serving as the director of the council. Sincerely yours,

John M. SWOMLEY, Jr.

STATEMENT OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL AGAINST CONSCRIPTION We are concerned about the long-continued conscription in the United States. When the Selective Service Act of 1948 was adopted it was not intended to be a permanent law. Yet it has been steadily renewed for years at a time, without any effort on the part of the Armed Services Committee to explore suitable alternatives.

In Great Britain, for example, a Government commission has been given the task of finding ways to establish a completely voluntary establishment. In the United States no responsible Government agency has gone beyond the report of the Cordiner committee to plan for adequate voluntary inducements.

We urge the Armed Services Committee to think in terms of such a study. Certainly there have been enough changes in military technology and the world scene to require such a study rather than to continue automatically to maintain a system which Great Britain, for example, is abandoning.

During the 11 years since the postwar conscription law was adopted in 1948, the world has witnessed the development of thermonuclear bombs, the trend toward making atomic weapons conventional, the development of long-range guided missiles and now is contemplating the devastating implications of the space age.

During these 11 years Congress has accepted essentially the conscription program advocated by the Army in 1917. In spite of its deteriorating effects on civil and military life and in spite of the revolution in military technology it has been renewed almost automatically without any serious consideration of alternatives.

In considering whether to continue the present power to induct we urge committee consideration of the following five points:

(1) The present law is discriminatory and inequitable.-There is economic discrimination because those whose parents can afford higher education are deferred while those who must work to earn the money for an education are drafted. Those who can afford to marry and have children young are deferred while those who cannot are further penalized by having to wait additional years after leaving the Armed Forces where they have received the extremely low pay of less than $100 a month. Thus a small segment of American society, for the most part already economically underprivileged, are set back a number of years in terms of economic competition with their fellow citizens of the same age, are deprived in some cases of further education and at the same time inust undergo separation from home and family at the cost of their normal personal liberty.

Prof. John K. Galbraith, of Harvard, has asserted that “the draft survives principally as a device by which we use compulsion to get young men to serve at less than the market rate of pay. We shift the cost of military service from the well-to-do taxpayer, who benefits by lower taxes, to the impecunious young draftee."

(2) Conscription is not only inefficient; it cannot accomplish the end for which it was adopted.—The purpose for which it was adopted was to supply the Armed Forces with manpower that could be trained to meet the needs of those forces. The Defense Advisory Committee on Professional and Technical Compensation headed by Ralph J. Cordiner, president of General Electric, in its May 1957 report stated :

"The modern military manpower problem, reduced to its simplest terms, is one of quality rather than quantity. It is not merely a matter of the total number of people on band, but is much more a matter of the level of competence, skill, and experience of those people.

"The military services are not able, at the present time and under the present circumstances, to keep and challenge and develop the kinds of people needed for the period of time necessary for those people to make an effective contribution to the operation of the force.”

The Cordiner report goes on to point out that of the 2,500,000 planned enlisted strength 303,000 have been inducted by the draft and “another 1,200,000 men are serving their first terms of voluntary enlistment." Of this overall first term group, 76 percent leave the Armed Forces as soon as their initial service period is over. Moreover, 97 out of every 100 draftees leave the Army as soon as their 2-year term ends. Since, as Ralph Cordiner has pointed out, the advance in “modern war technology makes it almost impossible to train a specialist in 2 years," the men are being discharged about the time they are becoming trained and hence useful. This points up two further problems :

1. Cordiner said after talking to hundreds of enlisted men :

"I found antagonism and bitterness over the draft. They were checking off the days until they got out. We must devote 25 percent of our military effort to training men who don't stay. The trainers are discouraged. They resemble the poor teacher whose every class flunks."

2. The accident rate is so high as a result of inexperienced men manning intricate weapons or equipment that the Armed Forces estimate that close to $5 billion worth of equipment is not now operable.

The Cordiner report estimated on the basis of figures submitted by the Armed Forces that an armed force paid as adequately as other Government and civilian workers would result in sufficient voluntary reenlistments so as to permit a reduction in the size of the Armed Forces especially in training and transportation personnel, but also “a 10-percent cutback in maintenance technicians" and reductions at other points. The total saving in material and maintenance would go from about $512 billion in 1960 to about $642 billion in 1962.

(3) Conscription has become an escape from responsibility for both Congre88 and the Armed Forces.-Instead of adopting policies which would attract young men into the Armed Forces compulsion has become an easy answer. Prior to June 1950, "approximately 60 percent of the enlisted members of the Armed Forces were reenlisting," said the Cordiner report. “The force consisted of approximately 1,500,000 men-predominantly volunteers.” By 1954 the reenlistment rate had fallen to 18 percent.

Aside from the pay scale there are other problems Congress has been able to dodge because of conscription. The Cordiner report spoke of "deplorable conditions under which military people are forced to live * The report added :

"In and around almost every military base can be found sprawling trailer camps and families jammed into 'splinter cities,' which are 5-year mobilization barracks stretched years beyond their original life expectancy. Divided families with inevitable inroads into the very heart of the moral fiber of the people involved ; injury to the pride, dignity, and personal standards of the individualthese are the elements of this tragedy."

But this is only part of the problem. The psychological attitude that the draft will provide men in spite of poor leadership, exploitation, and abuses is an aspect of compulsion itself. Dr. Eli Ginzberg, director of staff studies for the National Manpower Council, has said: "The trouble with the system is that there is a tendency for the defense management to seek the remedy for its errors by the simple method of calling up more manpower.

The committees in Congress which deal directly with the armed services have become so responsive to the professional officer group that in the 1958 legislation providing for an increase in pay for the Armed Forces, a general or admiral received an increase of $424 a month over his previous pay, a colonel $148 a month, and a major $58 a month. A private, first class, earning less than $100 a month previously, during his first 2 years of service would get only $3 a month increase-hardly an inducement to volunteer. Congress and the Pentagon have thus far pursued a policy of granting large increases to officers who aren't drafted and keeping the pay of the enlisted men so low as to make it necessary to draft them.

(4) Conscription has caused problems in leadership, discipline, and morale.Many college students enter ROTC in order to escape being enlisted men. One Pentagon official quoted in the May 27, 1958, Look estimated that 80 percent of

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