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at the exercise in the schools; on which | ter from Tanjore; but I have not had occasion the sermon of the morning was time to conclude it. repeated, and the boys' ollas examined. At this place is the church first built

In consequence of my having ex: by Swartz, and called by him, “ Christ's pressed a wish to hear Sattianaden preach, Church, Tritchinopoly. It is about the Mr. Kolhoff had given notice to the size of yours; but the arches supporting congregation, in the morning, that there the roof, are each twenty feet in length, would be Divine service next day (Mon- and the pillars are only one foot two day) at the little chapel, at nine o'clock. inches in thickness. At this station there Accordingly, the place was crowded at an are a great number of English, civil early hour. There appeared more of a and military. On Sunday morning last Divine unction in the assembly, on this I preached from these words, “For we occasion, than in any of the former. have seen his star in the east, and are Sattianaden delivered his discourse with come to worship him." Dr. John, who much natural eloquence and action, and followed me to this place from Tanjore, with visible effect. His subject was, preached afterwards to the Tamul conthe “marvellous light.” He first de

gregation. scribed the Pagan darkness; then the Next morning a sergeant called on me, light of Ziegenbalg ; then the light of who said he had seen the heavenly light in Swartz; then the efforts making in all the east, and wanted Bibles for the pious lands to produce light; and lastly, the English soldiers. There is a great cry heavenly light, “ when there shall be no for Bibles in this country, by the native more need of the light of the sun, nor of Christians and Europeans. Mr. Pohll, the moon,” etc.

the German missionary here, told me that In quoting a passage, he desired a he could dispose of a thousand Bibles. lower minister to read it. Sattianaden I proceed from this place to Madras, listened to it as a record, and then pro- where the Roman Catholics cover the ceeded to the illustration. The respon- land. Mr. Pohll tells me, that one of ses by the audience were frequently their priests, who was lately in this vicalled for. They concluded with a fer- cinity, preached the atonement with vent prayer for a blessing on the church great clearness and force; in conseof England.

quence of which he was removed by his After service, I went up to Sattianaden, superiors. I shall endeavour to find him and took him by the hand; and the old out. Some of the Romish churches are Christians came round about weeping. very corrupt, mingling Pagan superHe said, he was unworthy to preach before stitions with Romish ceremonies. But his teachers. The people asked me about it is yet true, that the Jesuits have hewed Bengal, saying, they had heard good wood and stone, and drawn water for news from thence. I told them the news the Protestant mission. were good; but that Bengal was ex- In my letter to you of last year, I actly a hundred


behind Tanjore. wrote to you under the impression that Mr. Kolhoff is a man of meek spirit, you were about to retire from public duty. but of ardent faith, labouring in season But I learn from Mr. Thornton that and out of season. His congregation is you are yet enabled to dispense the word daily increasing. When I was taking of life. That this blessing may be conleave, he presented to me an agate snuff tinued to your people, is the prayer of, box, set in gold, which belonged to Mr.

My dear sir, Swartz ; also the Hebrew Psalms and

Your affectionate son, Greek Testament of that venerable apos

C. BUCHANAN. tle. I intend to offer the Greek Testament to the Rev. Mr. Brown, of Calcutta.

Soon after leaving Tanjore, I passed through the woods inhabited by the col- CRUELTY to animals is a reproach to laries, or thieves, who are now human- any one, who is hard-hearted enough to ized by the gospel. They were clamor- give way to it. Little kindness can be ous for a minister, supposing that I could expected from him who wilfully sets his send them

They have eight foot on a cat's tail, or kicks an unoffendchurches, and no European minister. ing cur. But we may be opposed to

Tritchinopoly, Sept. 6, 1806. cruelty, and yet be friendly to discipline; I thought to have despatched this let- and I do think that a trifling attention in




this respect to domestic animals would “So far from it that I think, if you greatly improve their manners. Who will take the matter into consideration, can enjoy a meal in comfort with a dog's it will appear unreasonable to expect that mouth on his knee, watching for every a big dog like me should be contented piece he eats, or with a cat rubbing with so little a piece. It is very excelagainst his legs, mewing aloud, as though lent beef; a slice cut from the same she had been famished for the last fort- place, cut a trifle thicker, would be very night? I am fond of talking with dumb acceptable. If you will take measure by creatures, putting such words in their my mouth, and the breadth of my chest, mouths as I think they would use if they you will suit me to a tittle.”. were blessed with the power of speech.

6. This will never do! I by no means Let me give an account of a fancied feel comfortable at what I am doing. conversation that I held with some dogs | You must not ask me again. Here is and cats yesterday.

one more slice, but it must be the last." I had walked a long way, and was Now, whether it was the scuffle made both weary and hungry, when I came to by the black pointer, with his feet, in a public house by the way-side, which catching the meat that I jerked with my had a trough of water before the door. knife from my fork towards him, or his On a board the words were printed, smack that was heard in the kitchen, I “ Good entertainment for man and cannot tell, but in an instant, a liver and horse," so I thought to myself, this op- white spaniel dashed into the room, and, portunity of getting a mution-chop, or a seating himself by the side of his friend, beef-steak, for my dinner must not be by the expression of his longing eyes lost. In a few minutes I was seated in thus accosted me. the little parlour of the public house, with “ You seem to me, sir, to be a kinda piece of cold roast beef before me. hearted gentleman, and you have got a

Being, as I said, very hungry, I felt capital joint before you. How long you thankful for such a seasonable supply, and may have been feasting my friend Blackate of it heartily; but before my meal skin I cannot tell, but as I am as good a was half finished, a black pointer dog dog as he is, and quite as hungry, I hope burst open the door by leaping against that, in a spirit of fairness, you will be as it with his fore paws; bounce he came liberal towards me, as you have been tointo the room, and, seating himself right wards him. Do not trouble yourself to before me, looked up in my face with an cut it in thin slices, but give me my share expression which seemed to say, “You in a lump at once. Do not hesitate ; seem very comfortable, sir, and I dare the knife is ready in your

hand." say the beef is very good; if you have It was all in vain that I assured him no objection I should vastly like to join of the utter impossibility of my acceding you. Our conversation went on thus. to his request, inasmuch as I had al

Why, Mr. Blackskin, I am, as you ready done my conscience some violence say, very comfortable, and I should like in proceeding so far, that it was altoyou to be comfortable too, but I intend gether unreasonable to expect that two to pay for the beef that I eat, and it will dogs and a man should partake of the hardly be fair towards your master, beef, when there was to be but one payshould two of us eat his beef, and he re- master-for he argued the point so tenaceive payment for only one.”

ciously, that I was fain to compromise That's all right, sir, but as I have the affair, by giving him one slice in got no money, and as you would not liquidation of all real or ideal demands like, perhaps, to pay for both, I shall be he could have against me. But here I content with a slice or two, and that you got myself into a double difficulty, for know will make but little difference in Mr. Blackskin at once contended that the that large joint. Just one slice, sir, if slice I had cut was much thicker and you please, rather under done ; cut it larger than what had been bestowed where you like, one part will do for me upon him, while, on the other hand, Mr. as well as another."

Liver-and-white entertained an opinion Really! really! I hardly know quite the reverse, being satisfied that his what to say to you. It is your master's slice must have been considerably thinplace to see that you are well fed; but, ner and smaller than the one his comhowever, here is one slice for you. panion had received. There! I hope you are now satisfied.” It was a delicate matter for me to

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constitute myself judge and jury in a “You will kindly remember that I case in which my character for impar- have had but one piece," said the spaniel. tiality and justice was so deeply impli- “But that piece was much larger than cated; and how the affair would have been the two bits that I had,” observed the adjusted is uncertain, had I not been pointer; "and besides, I am much the suddenly placed in a new position by the bigger dog of the two.' “ Stand back, arrival of a fresh claimant, in the shape will you, " cried the mother cat,

or I of a tortoiseshell cat. In she came, with will put my private mark on your noses, her tail waving gracefully in the air ; but for you have no business in the parlour perceiving at a glance how matters stood, at ali—cats for the parlour, and dogs for she instantly half lowered her tail, at the the kennel, if you please.' same time raising the hairs on her neck Saying this, Mrs. Tortoiseshell again and back to a degree somewhat incon- appealed to me for a little beef, as her sistent with the meekness symbolized by daughter had in a somewhat ill-manher velvet paw and furry skin. Taking nerly way deprived her_of what I had precedence of the two dogs, and staring bestowed. Here Miss Tabby advanced at me with her big round eyes, she thus

a step nearer, with the firm determinadrew me into conversation.

tion that not one morsel should go into “I will trouble you, sir, for a bit of her mother's mouth while she remained the beef. Had you reflected for a mo- in the room.

At one moment I wished ment, you must have been convinced the whole group were a mile off, and at that there was such a creature as a cat another, that I had the privilege of cutting on the premises, in which case you would away at the joint before me, for their not have been so lavish with your favours benefit, till they were all satisfied. To on two ill-mannerly curs, but have re- bring matters to a crisis, I cut four slices served them for me. I have been a cat of the beef, and letting out one dog at a in this house for seven years, and if | time, gave him his portion, taking care either pointer or spaniel shall dare to rob also that each cat had her piece. After me of my rights I'll

which, ringing the bell, I directed the Here she turned round to the two dogs, attention of the landlady to the joint of spreading out one of her paws in a way beef, telling her I had cut freely, and that made them draw back a little. She that she must charge me accordingly

. was indeed on the very point of indulg. Thus ended my adventure with the dogs ing, 'not only in hasty sounds, but and cats, and I left the pot-house with angry deeds. Now, I abhor contention the full conviction that if it be a duty on and strife, and to put an end to it, threw the part of a guest to behave kindly to down a piece of meat to Mrs. Tortoise- the domestic animals of the house he shell

, thinking thereby to avert the enters, it is a duty also on the part of coming storm; but, alas, things were to the host to protect his guests from the go cross with me. Before the piece had annoyance I had endured. disappeared, a half-grown tabby kitten

Also, as I passed a poor blind man at sprang forward, and seizing the meat in the door, and put sixpence into his hand, the mouth of her mother, bore it a full I thought to myself, that the beef might half yard distance to devour it, making have been much better bestowed on him all the time that loud and rapid purring than the dogs and the cats: I hope I shall which in cats is called swearing. For remember this another time. this unseemly conduct not a single reproof did she receive from her mother. I had now Mrs. Tortoiseshell and

Open rebukes are for magistrates and Miss Tabby, as well as the black pointer courts of justice. Private rebukes are and the liver-and-white spaniel for my for friends, where all the witnesses of guests, their speaking faces and glisten- the offender's blushes are blind, and ing eyes all fixed upon me. Miss Tabby, deaf, and dumb.- Feltham. with her tail to her mamma, was the first in “pride of place," and the two dogs sat on their haunches, a little in CULTURE OF THE JUDGMENT, the rear of Mrs. Tortoiseshell. Dull in- The greater genius and deed must I have been, to have mis- memory any one possesses, the more understood the conversational glances of careful should he be not to neglect the

cultivation of his judgment.-Bengel







the whole group.

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hand of time, cannot be stated. On the The Mujelibe was first supposed by summit, it is crowned with something Pietro Della Velle to be the Tower like a turret or lantern. The other angles of Belus. This traveller examined its

are not so perfect, but it is probable, ruin A. D. 1616, and he characterizes they were originally thus ornamented. the mass as a mountain of ruins,” and The western face is the easiest, and the again, as a “huge mountain.” He is northern the most difficult of access. supported in his opinion by D'Anville, Every portion of this mighty structure, Rennell, and other high names; but though erected as if it would resist the none of them, except Kenneir, possessed | utmost shock of time, has been torn by any distinct information concerning the the rains, which here fall in torrents, Birs Nemroud.

with the force and body of water-spouts, The Mujelibe, or, overturned," is in a terrific manner. The eastern face, one of the most enormous masses of particularly, is worn into a deep channel, brick-formed earth, raised by the art from the summit to the base. The sumand labour of man. According to Rich, mit is covered with heaps of rubbish ; the mound is of an oblong shape, irre- in digging into which, layers of broken gular in its height, with its sides facing burned brick, cemented with mortar, are the cardinal points. The measurement discovered, and whole bricks, with anof the northern side being two hundred tique inscriptions on them, are not unfreyards in length; the southern, two hun- quently found. The whole is covered dred and nineteen ; the eastern, one hun- with fragments of pottery, brick, bitudred and eighty-two; and the western, men, pebbles, vitrified scoriæ, and even one hundred and thirty-six. The ele- shells, bits of glass, and mother of pearl. vation of the south-east or highest Dens of wild beasts in one of which angle, he says, is one hundred and Rich found the bones of sheep and other forty-one feet. The western face of the animals) are very numerous among this building is most interesting, on ac- ruin; and in most of the ravines are count of the appearance which it pre- numbers of bats and owls. Yes, these sents. It is a straight wall, that seems mighty buildings, which were once, perto have cased and parapeted this side of haps, the chambers of royalty, are now the magnificent pile. The south-west the haunts of jackals, and other ferocious angle is rounded off; but whether it was animals, reminding us of the awful preso formed, or it has been thus worn by the diction of the prophet: NOVEMBER, 1811.

2 I


" Wild beasts of the desert shall lie there;

to the element in which they pass their And their houses shall be full of doleful creatures;

existence, we find much which excites And owls shall dwell there,

our admiration. A bird is formed for And satyrs shall dance there. And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in traversing, on powerful pinions, the wide their desolate houses,

regions of the air ; but the bird is far And dragons in their pleasant palaces.”

heavier than the thin element into which Isa. xiii. 21, 22.

it raises itself, and through which it It may be mentioned that the Hebrew speeds its way; but the bird must rest word Sheirim, rendered “satyr" here, upon the ground. On the contrary, the is translated by Dr. Henderson “ wild fish is nearly of the same specific gravity goats,'

.. and it literally signifies “hairy as the medium in which it dwells; and ones;” a signification still preserved in the effect of gravity is therefore almost the Vulgate. In Gen. xxvii. 11, 23, in counterbalanced by the buoyancy of that Lev. iv. 24, xvi. 9, it is applied to the medium; we say almost, because the fish goat; and in Lev. xvii. 7, 2 Chron. xi. | is somewhat heavier than a volume of 15, to objects of idolatrous worship, per- water equal to itself; especially if the haps in the form of goats, and translated water be not that of the sea, or of sa“ devils.” It is probable, that in the verse

line lakes. The least movement of the quoted, and in Isa. xxxiv. 14, some kind fish, however, is sufficient to compensate of wild goat is intended; but it may be for this trifling difference; and hence, interesting to observe, that Rich, who suspended as it were in its native eleexplored these masses a. D. 1812, heard ment, and constructed for swimming, as the oriental account of satyrs while thus a bird is for flight, the fish does not reemployed. He had always imagined the quire, like the latter, extensive wings belief of the existence of such creatures for its support, which have to be vito be confined to the mythology of the brated, by means of voluminous and west; but a Tehohadar who accompanied powerful muscles. The action of organs him accidentally mentioned that, in this far more slight, far more circumscribed, desert, there is an animal resembling a comparatively, suffices both to raise the man from the head to the waist, and fish in the water, and to guide and steady having the thighs and the legs of a goat

its movements. But this suspension of and a sheep. He also informed him that the fish in the water, with but the least the Arabs hunt it with dogs, and eat the exertion on its own part, with but a lower parts, abstaining from the upper, gentle agitation of its fins, is greatly con. on account of their resemblance to the ducive to the animal's advantage, as it human species. The belief of the exist- regards its progression. The bird has ence of such creatures, however ideal, is not only to sustain itself. by beating by no means rare in the vicinity of the the air with its wings, but by the same Babylonian wilds.*

strokes, also, to make its way. In the

fish, on the other hand, the undivided THE ADAPTATION OF FISHES TO THEIR energies of the instrument of progression

(namely, the caudal extremity of the Fishes constitute the lowest class of body, and the vertical fin with which it the vertebrate section of the animal king. is terminated, and which acts as a vigordom, and, as is well known, are struc- ous paddle) are devoted exclusively to turally adapted for the water, of which the work of propelling the animal onthey are naturally tenants.

wards ; and this being the case, it is the The number of known species is im- more necessary that the instrument in mense, and the variety of form, size, and question should be very powerful; and as colouring which they exhibit, is almost water is far more dense than air, and reas unlimited as their number. Most are quires, therefore, more force, in order to carnivorous, preying upon the smaller overcome its resistance, hence, also, it of their own class, and upon worms, in- is, that the fish has that compressed oval sects, crustacea, and mollusca ; but some form, pointed anteriorly, and tapering feed, in part, and some few perhaps behind, with which we are all familiar

, exclusively on vegetables, as fuci, etc. and which is so conspicuous in the rapid

When we reflect upon the general salmon, or mackarel, but which in slow conformation and the structure of this moving fishes, or such as creep on the extensive class of animals, with reference bed of the sea, is more or less departed • From “ Assyrians and Chaldeans,” published of the fish tensely covered with an un

from. To the same end is the surface by the Religious Tract Society.


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