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indented, so as to resemble the edge of indulging its appetite for blood, as far, a semicircular saw; hence, when the at least, as that of warm-blooded veroral disc is fixed upon the skin, the tebrate animals is concerned, must be of edges of these little saws are brought extremely rare occurrence; and, morein contact with it, and so worked by the over, this appetite is only exhibited by muscular fibres in the midst of which two, or perhaps three species, so that they are implanted, as to divide the it is not perhaps going too far to say, that skin and capillary vessels, from which it is given, not with a view so much to the the blood is sucked by means of a strong good of the animals themselves, as for and very apparent muscular action, so the benefit of man, at least as far as the as gradually to fill the stomach and its present species is concerned. *. Much appendages. We say appendages, be- indeed has been said of the blood-thirsty cause the stomach is provided with a appetite of the horse leech, and prorange of sacculi on each side, to which bably not without foundation; its wounds we shall presently advert more explicitly. are also asserted to be sometimes dan

The stomach is a capacious sac, so gerous ; nevertheless, as Cuvier well extremely dilatable, as, when filled, to remarks, "the diversity of opinions reenlarge the animal to several times its specting the power of the horse leech ordinary bulk. It is of an elongated (Hæmopis sanguisorba, Savi.) to draw form, running for about two-thirds blood, is not a little singular. Linneus down the entire length of the animal, says that, nine are able to kill a horse. and is also of considerable diameter; Messrs. Huzard and Pelletier, on the internally it is divided by eight mem- contrary, in a memoir presented to the branous septa into compartments, which Institute (of France) and inserted in the however freely communicate with each Journal de Pharmacie,' March, 1825, other. In each compartment are two assert, that it attacks no vertebrate anilateral orifices, (one on each side,) lead- mal whatsoever. M. Blainville, however, ing into sac-like appendages of an elon- hints that they have mistaken for the gated form, and bluntly pointed at the horse leech, a nearly allied species, the apex. These sacculi enlarge gradually black leech, (la sangsue noire) which from the first downwards ; but the last he makes the type of a distinct genus, are of extraordinary size, and nearly termed Pseudobdella, and of which the fill the space between the muscular pa- mouth has only folds of skin, without rietes, and the short intestinal canal. any teeth ; a more accurate examination The use of these sacculi is not well as- is therefore necessary. Both species of certained. Some regard them as ap- leech devour earth worms with avidity.” pendages for the increase of the diges. To return to the medicinal leech : the tive cavity, or as reservoirs for containing small dimensions of the intestinal canal, food, while that with which the stomach compared with the magnitude of the itself is filled is undergoing the process stomach, is very remarkable, and proves of digestion ; and certain it is, that when the carnivorous propensities of the anithe leech is gorged with blood, these sac- mal; at least, if we are to be guided by culi are not only filled, but greatly dis- analogy. Its course is nearly straight, tended. On the contrary, other anatomists and, on each side, at some distance from regard them as organs for the secretion each other are two small glandular of various fluids necessary for digestion, bodies, the uses of which are not unand analogous to the salivary and biliary derstood. The stomach with its appenfluids of higher animals. A query here

* It is a remarkable fact, that certain leeches of arises, whether blood is the natural ali- Chili are terrestrial, living in the woods, and never ment (with other things) of the leech.

M. Gay states, that he could not Blood taken into the stomach of this legs bitten by these blood-suckers.

make a botanical excursion, without having his

They crawl animal does not appear to undergo di- upon plants, along trunks of trees, and ascend gestion, but will remain red and without only one which M. Gay discovered in these latter

shrubs, but never approach marshes or rivers. The alteration, as Cuvier says, for several localities, is a very small kind, belonging to the weeks, (“pendant plusieurs semaines ;") genus Branchiobdella, which has the singular

habit of living in the pulmonary cavity of a gasindeed, when a leech is distended with teropodous shelled mollusc, (Auricula Dombeii ;) blood, it generally dies, as if from the and he also found at Santiago another species of effects of inordinate repletion, unless in- species of~lobster.

the same genus, living under the branchiæ of a

In Europe, a species (Brandeed the greater portion of it be regur- chiobdella astaci) lives on the branchiæ of the craygitated through the mouth. Besides, in

fish. In their sylvan manners, there are leeches

in Ceylon, which agree with those of Chili. See its natural abodes, the opportunity of Mag. of Zool. and Bot. vol. i. p. 414.

in the water.

dages, and the intestinal canal, do not convey an idea of the digestive organs float loosely in the body of the leech, of the leech, as seen when exposed by but are retained in their proper situation the removal of the abdominal portion of by numerous membranous ligaments, the body. a is the stomach, with a porwhich intervene between them and the tion cut away, so as to allow the septa muscular investment, and are thus se- bb to be seen, together with the orifices cured from becoming disarranged by of the sacculi. cccc are the sacculi, the animal's tortuous movements, or by of which

are remarkable for its worming its way through narrow their sudden and great development. apertures. The annexed sketch will l d is the intestinal canal, with its two

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f glandular bodies on each side, lying be- joins two very minute ganglia, situated tween the last two sacculi. é is the upon the back or dorsal aspect of the oral disc, with the eyes and teeth. f oral orifice; and it is from these two is the caudal disc.

little points that the oral disc receives The leech is provided with a nervous its nerves of sensation, and the eyes system, and this system is ganglionic; those of vision. The characters of this that is, made up of knots, or ganglia, con- nervous system of ganglia, and the nanected by intervening nervous threads: ture of the æsophagal ganglion with of these ganglia thus connected together, its nervous circle, and minute ganglia twenty-four or twenty-five are seated giving fibrils to the oral disc and eyes, in a line down the abdominal surface will be understood by reference to the of the body, from the æsophagus to the accompanying slight sketch. It has been caudal extremity. From these ganglia, already stated, that the leech belongs to or nervous centres, fibres are distributed the class of red-blooded worms, or anto the body; but the first, or æsopha- nelida : hence it is to be inferred, that gical ganglion, consisting of two united there is a circulatory system, for the due

distribution of the vital fluid. There is, however, no heart; it is by the agency of contractile vessels only that this is effected. Anatomists have described four large longitudinal trunks or vessels, of which two are mesian, one running down the centre of the back, the other down the centre of the abdomen : the other two are lateral, one on each side, and appear to be connected with the respiratory apparatus. The central dorsal vessel answers the purpose of an aorta, and receiving the blood aerated by the lateral vessels, distributes it to the general system : the abdominal vessel serves as a venous reservoir, collecting the blood after its circulation through the minute arteries, and returning it partly to the dorsal vessel, but

chiefly to the two lateral vessels, for the nodules, forms a heart-shaped mass larger purpose of becoming again aërated. than the rest, and sends off a nervous The movement of the blood in the two thread, which encircles the gullet, and lateral vessels is independent of that in


the mesian vessels, and varies in its the skill and wisdom which are displayed course; the current sometimes being in the organization, not only of thi from the head of the animal to the animal, but of all living bodies, and caudal extremity in one vessel, whence which attest, or rather indeed demon. it passes into the other, which it as- strate, the power and goodness of God, cends ; sometimes the reverse. Between is scarcely necessary. It is especially, all the great vessels there is a free com- when the naturalist investigates the munication. The aërating, or respira- structure of animals, and their express tory apparatus, consists of a series of adaptation for their appointed modes of lateral sacculi, or little membranous life; when he examines their anatomy, pouches, opening, externally by small and discovers its beauty and propriety, orifices for the admission of water; on that he is led to exclaim, " How woneach side there are seventeen of these derful are thy works, in wisdom hast sacs, composed of a highly vascular mem- | thou made them all !”

M. brane, so delicate as to permit the action of the oxygen of the water upon the blood. The vascular network, which is spread over each sacculus, is derived The usual preliminary of a discusfrom the lateral vessels of its own side, sion, namely, the definition of the prinwhich gives off two branches for the cipal term in question, is, in the present supply of each ; first a simple straight, instance, attended with an incidental dif. or nearly straight branch; and secondly, ficulty, not to be surmounted without a thick, muscular and singularly tor- virtually affirming what has been alleged tuous branch, highly irritable, but with to require proof. But then, this same its canal extremely narrow. This sin- difficulty attaches to every argument gular tortuous artery, with its thick concerning the great principles of huparietes, was for a long time regarded man nature ; inasmuch as the mere fact as a glandular body, of unknown use; that human language furnishes terms and it is but recently that its true cha- whereby such faculties may be defined racter has been ascertained. It is not, and described, is a substantial proof of however, in these respiratory sacculi their reality. only that the blood of the leech is aër- If, for example, it were asked, Is ated ; the surface of the body itself, man à rational animal ?—the contrary covered, as we have stated, by a very being pretended, and if the advocate fine cuticle, is furnished with a network of so whimsical a paradox were required of innumerable minute vessels, and the to make us understand, by definitions, blood as it circulates through them is or circumlocutions, or by equivalents, subjected to the action of the oxygen drawn from other languages, what it of the medium in which the animal ha- is precisely of which he means to debitually resides. The leech, or at least spoil humanity; in merely stating his the medicinal leech, is aquatic; but it objection, he must answer it; or at can live for a considerable period ex- least supply all the materials necessary posed to the atmosphere ; and, under for his own refutation. The fact that these circumstances, it is probable that every language of civilized men comthe aëration of the blood is confined to prises a large class of words and phrases that in the cutaneous capillaries, at least dependent one upon another for their as long as the skin continues defended meaning, and related, closely or remotely, with its mucous secretion. Some leeches, to a certain property, or function of huhowever, are exclusively terrestrial, as man nature, and which terms we can has been already noticed respecting by no means dispense with in describing those of Chili and Ceylon; and an Euro- man, as he is distinguished from the pean species (Geobdella trochetii) lives terrestrial orders around him, this fact, as much on the land as in the water; attaching universally to the vehicle of leaving the latter in order to pursue the thought, affords all the proof which a earth worm, on which it feeds.

strict logic would grant in reply to the Other minutiæ in the structure of the sophism. Language, when combined leech might be entered into; enough, in continuous discourse, may indeed, however, has been said to convey a and too often does, convey notions toclear idea of its general organization-tally false and absurd ;

but language the object of our immediate aim.

itself, which is at once the engine of To call the attention of the reader to cogitation, and the record of all facts

permanently or incidentally attaching to system of the universe, and Plato may human nature ; language, the least fal- have dreamed in politics and morals; facious of historians, which, while it but can we turn over the pages of a notes the revolutions of empires, is the Greek lexicon, and affect to doubt wheenduring type of the visible world, and ther the Greek mind was of philosophic the shadow of the invisible--the mirror cast ? With the Greek language before of the universe, as known to man, lan- us, in its mere words and idioms, we guage never lies : how should it do so ; want no historians, we want no poets, seeing that it is itself the creature and we want no marbles, we want no temreflection of nature ? As well deny ples, to assure us that the race of men that the trees, buildings, rocks, and using that tongue, were, in mind and clouds, painted on the bosom of a tran- taste, all that historians, poets, marbles, quil lake are images of realities, as well temples, show them to have been. do this, as assume that language, in And it deserves particularly to be the abstract, has ever belied humanity, noted, that, while the languages of civior presented any elements foreign to lized races at large furnish evidence on our constitution.

all points touching man's nature, phyPhilosophers or teachers may have sical, intellectual, and moral, so those affirmed, and the multitude may have especial refinements, which characterize believed, far more than could be proved; this or that language, and which have meantime, the vehicle they have em- resulted from the eminent attainments ployed in defining and promulgating of the people using it, serve to exhibit such illusions, has faithfully embodied that one rudiment of human nature as the permanent verities of philosophy and we might say magnified, and its inner religion; just as a wonder-loving tra- structure expanded. It is not in the veller, while he tells a thousand tales rude speech of nomadic hordes, or in of griffins and dragons, sets us right the talk of the fish eaters of a desolate by the dumb testimony of the specimens shore, that we are to look for the record he has brought with him. Men might of the genuine rudiments of human as easily create to themselves a sixth nature ; but rather in the copiousness sense, as fabricate, and retain in use of tongues which have conveyed the a system of terms, having no archetypes choicest refinements of those rudiments. in nature.

Were it questioned whether man be And what is true of language gener- an imaginative being, formed to catch ally, respecting human nature at large, analogies, and to be charmed with reis true in particular of the language of semblance; three-fourths of every laneach race, respecting its particular cha- guage, barbarous or civilized, attests the racteristics, and even its history. For fact; nor is this evidence touched by any example, were we, as some have done, instances of what may be false in taste, or to reject, as a tissue of arrogant fables, factitious, in the literature of the people. what we learned at school concerning Or is the question, “Am I responthe early conquests of the Roman people; sible-am I a moral agent-am I to and if Livy were dismissed as a mere be held accountable for my temper, romancer, yet, in taking up the Latin dispositions, and conduct; and am í language, as a whole, and in running so constituted as that a future retribution through its vocabulary, and in consi- will be a fit issue of my present course dering its idioms, we should find no of life?" If this be the question, it room left for a question, whether the is answered at once concisely, and conpeople to whom the language of Livy, clusively, by simply appealing to the Sallust, Tacitus, was vernacular, were mere words that must be employed to a military people: is it possible to be express it. lieve them to have been the inert cul- But if, on any account, we should tivators of the soil, or a nation of shop- think it well seriously to go into conkeepers ? Let the entire Roman his- troversy with one propounding so strange tory be repudiated ; yet give us only a doubt, it could be thought nothing the Roman language, and we should more than reasonable to require him to readily recover, from that source alone, spread out so formidable a query in an authentic record of those successive some variety of terms. We should ask triumphs, which at length made the him then to favour us with synonymes, Cesars the lords of the world.

and equivalents; and to set his diffiAristotle may have taught a false culty clear of ambiguity, by a liberal


adduction of instances and illustrations. I not to contradict the Divine attributes Who could decline so equitable a re- and, clearly you can never affirm it quest ?

be unjust to treat man as responsibi If we suppose, then, our objector to for his dispositions and actions, withou have complied; he stands convinced : virtually admitting every postulated at least, if his mind have been trained the most refined moral science; for to habits of logical inquiry, he will not plainly, there can be no injustice withir fail to see that, in describing the moral a system which admits of no justice nature, with the intent to deny it, he there can be no cruelty, where there has unwittingly, affirmed it ; and we might not be goodness; nor could any might say to him, “More convincing abstractions of this order have been than any syllogisms, or than any dis- named, or discoursed of, except in a cursive argument, in proof of the reality community of beings, who, in fact, are of that moral scheme which you call conversant with whatever necessitates in question, are the words (considered the inference that they are held acas products of the human mind) to countable to supreme justice, and will which you have been compelled to have hereafter be reckoned with. Certain recourse in enouncing your scepticism. modes of treatment may be severe, only

he system we live under is, in fact, on the supposition—that they have place a moral system in the highest sense ; in a system which would have admitted because among all people with whom lenient modes of treatment; and such human nature has been at all expanded, a system, by the very statement, is aba copious vocabulary of terms is found, stractedly good; it is a benevolently conto which no sense could be assigned instructed system, and therefore the cona world of beings, either purely animal, ception of a benevolent mind.— Isaac or purely intellectual.

Taylor. If man be not a moral agent, and if his sphere in this respect do not immeasurably transcend that of the sen- VILLAGE CHARACTERS.-No. I. tient orders around him, how comes he to talk as if he were ? If, in regard to

Are there--still more amazing--who resist a moral system, he be only a brute of

The rising thought? who smother in its birth finer form, born of the earth and re- The glorious truth? who struggle to be brutes ? turning to it, whence is it that, in respect

Who, through this bosom barrier, burst their way, of virtue and vice, of good and evil, Who labour downwards, through the opposing the dialect of heaven rolls over his lips ? When was it, and how, that he stole

Of instinct, reason, and the world against them

In dismal hopes, and shelter in the shock the vocabulary of the skies ?

Of endless night ? night darker than the graves ? You may choose to say, That men's

Who fight the proofs of immortality ?"-Young. notions of virtue and vice are, and ever Son of song, there are! And they have been, contorted; that they have say, moreover, in their blindness, that been used to call good evil, and evil the substance of the world existed from good. You may say, That the notions all eternity; and that all parts of it attached to these terms are variable, and being in motion, after various trials, so the terms themselves convertible; you assembled themselves together, as to may say,

That conscience is a fallacious form the beautiful world exhibited to adviser; that notions of honour impel our view. They say, further, that men men to acts of shame; and that reward sprang like mushrooms out of the mud and punishment fall as often inversely, and slime of the earth; and that their as directly, upon merit and demerit

. thoughts, and what is called soul, Or you may affirm, That man's actual are only the various actions and reperposition, creature of circumstances as cussion of small particles of matter. he is, and yet held responsible, is severe, Again, they say of the system of this undesirable, and melancholy in its con- beautiful world, that it is composed of sequences. You may say this, or more nought else but matter and motionof the sort; and yet you cannot even matter, dividing itself into such and murmur your complaints, without es- such a figure ; and motion, directing tablishing the very principles on the into such and such tracks, and turnings, ground of which, first, a moral system and deviations, that they dance about at may be incontestably proved; and, se- will, and yet keeping due order ; while condly, the actual moral system shown I there is no God to superintend them, or

And with reversed ambition strive to sink?


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