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DESECRATION OF THE FLAG

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NIVERSITY
HEARINGS
YALILAITYMO

BEFORE
0:30.0190 SUBCOMMITTEE NO. 4

na ACOL.

WE
oto Do

JULIA JULENT
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
STELLEN

NINETIETH CONGRESS

17.
ТЯТО,

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FIRST SESSION

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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1967

79-643

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

EMANUEL CELLER, New York, Chairman MICHAEL A. FEIGHAN, Ohio

WILLIAM M. MCCULLOCH, Ohio EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana

RICHARD H. POFF, Virginia PETER W. RODINO, JR., New Jersey ARCH A. MOORE, JR., West Virginia BYRON G. ROGERS, Colorado

WILLIAM T. CAHILL, New Jersey HAROLD D. DONOHUE, Massachusetts CLARK MACGREGOR, Minnesota JACK BROOKS, Texas

CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia

EDWARD HUTCHINSON, Michigan
ROBERT T. ASHMORE, South Carolina ROBERT MCCLORY, Illinois
JOHN DOWDY, Texas

HENRY P. SMITH III, New York
BASIL L. WHITENER, North Carolina WILLIAM V. ROTH, JR., Delaware
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin THOMAS J. MESKILL, Connecticut
JAMES C. CORMAN, California

CHARLES W. SANDMAN, JR., New Jersey WILLIAM L. ST. ONGE, Connecticut TOM RAILSBACK, Illinois DON EDWARDS, California

EDWARD G. BIESTER, JR., Pennsylvania WILLIAM L. HUNGATE, Missouri

CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California
HERBERT TENZER, New York
JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan
ANDREW JACOBS, JR., Indiana
JOSHUA EILBERG, Pennsylvania

Bess E. DICK, Staff Director
WILLIAM R. FOLEY, General Counsel

GARNER J. CLINE, Counsel

HERBERT FUCHS, Counsel
WILLIAM P. SBATTUCK, Counsel

BENJAMIN L. ZELENKO, Counsel
CHARLES J. ZINN, Law Revision Counsel

DONALD G. BENN, A880ciate Counsel
JOHN W. DEAN III, A88ociate Counsel
DONALD E. SANTARELLI, A88ociate Counsel

SUBCOMMITTEE No. 4

BYRON G. ROGERS, Colorado, Chairman BASIL L. WHITENER, North Carolina ROBERT MCCLORY, Illinois JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan

CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California
ANDREW JACOBS, JR., Indiana

RICHARD H. POFF, Virginia
BENJAMIN L. ZELENKO, Counsel
DONALD G. BENN, A88ociate Counsel

DONALD E. SANTARELLI, 288ociate Counsel
I

CONTENTS

Pago

Text of bills.

1-27

Texts of bills.

346-349
Testimony of
Clausen, Hon. Don H., U.S. Representative from California-

250
Cramer, Hon. William C., U.S. Representative from Florida

265
Davis, Hon. Glenn R., U.S. Representative from Wisconsin.

121
Edwards, Hon. Jack, U.S. Representative from Alabama--

63
Farbstein, Hon. Leonard, U.S. Representative from New York.

256
Freedman, Monroe H., Professor of Law, George Washington Uni-
versity --

306

Hall, Hon. Durward G., U.S. Representative from Missouri.

195

Halpern, Hon. Seymour, U.S. Representative from New York-

103

Horton, Hon. Frank J., U.S. Representative from New York.

245

Kee, Hon. James, U.S. Representative from West Virginia..

203

Kelly, Hon. Edna F., U.S. Representative from New York-

45

Kuykendall, Hon. Dan, U.S. Representative from Tennessee.

93

Latta, Hon. Delbert L., U.S. Representative from Ohio.-

204

Long, Hon. Clarence D., U.S. Representative from Maryland.

253

Lyons, Edmund G., vice chairman, National Americanism Commis-

sion, American Legion

177

McClory, Hon. Robert, U.S. Representative from Illinois.

27

Mears, John S., assistant director, National Legislative Commission,

American Legion.-

177

Meskill, Hon. Thomas J., U.S. Representative from Connecticut. 107
Morris, Edward, teaching fellow, Bowling Green State University,
Ohio.--

233
Murphy, Hon. John M., U.S. Representative from New York-

123
Musmanno, Hon. Michael, justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.. 70
Myers, Hon. John T., U.S. Representative from Indiana..

262
O'Neal, Hon. Maston, U.S. Representative from Georgia_

64
Pell, Hon. Claiborne, U.S. Senator from Rhode Island

216
Pepper, Hon. Claude, U.S. Representative from Florida -

197
Quillen, Hon. James H., U.S. Representative from Tennessee.

28
Randall, Hon. William J., U.S. Representative from Missouri..

258
Reid, Herbert O., Professor of Constitutional Law, Howard Uni-
versity -

279

Reinecke, Hon. Ed, U.S. Representative from California.

206

Rivers, Hon. L. Mendel, U.S. Representative from South Carolina---

187

Rogers, Hon. Paul G., U.S. Representative from Florida-

207

Roudebush, Hon. Richard L., U.S. Representative from Indiana--- 53

Scerra, Joseph, Sr. vice commander, Veterans of Foreign Wars of the

United States..

53

Selden, Hon. Armistead I., U.S. Representative from Alabama.

248

Sikes, Hon. Robert L. F., U.S. Representative from Florida.

243

Smith, Hon. H. Allen, U.S. Representative from California.

201

Speiser, Lawrence, American Civil Liberties Union..--

136
Stanton, Hon. William J., U.S. Representative from Ohio..

257

Tower, Hon. John G., U.S. Senator from Texas.

216

Tower, Lawrence P., chairman, American Coalition of Patriotic

Societies, Inc.

217

Vinson, Hon. Fred M., Jr., Assistant Attorney General of the United

States.

271

Walker, Hon. E. S. Johnny, U.S. Representative from New Mexico.- 255

Wampler, Hon. William C., U.S. Representative from Virginia -- 267

Webb, Maurice T., director, National Americanism Commission,

American Legion..

177

Wyman, Hon. Louis C., U.S. Representative from New Hampshire.. 113

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Statements of —

Adair, Hon. E. Ross, U.S. Representative from Indiana---

Anderson, A. Leo, AMVETS national commander -

Ashbrook, Hon. John M., U.S. Representative from Ohio.--

Baring, Hon. Walter S., U.S. Representative from Nevada-

Berry, Hon. E. Y., U.S. Representative from South Dakota-

Biester, Hon. Edward G., Jr., U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania.

Boggs, Hon. Hale, U.S. Representative from Louisiana...

Chamberlain, Hon. Charles E., U.S. Representative from Michigan..

Clancy, Hon. Donald D., U.S. Representative from Ohio..

Corbett, Hon. Robert J., U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania.--

de la Garza, Eligio (Kika), U.S. Representative from Texas..

Delaney, Hon. James J., U.S. Representative from New York.--

District of Columbia State Federation of Business & Professional

Women's Clubs, Washington, D.C.-

Dole, Hon. Robert, U.S. Representative from Kansas.
Edwards, Hon. Edwin W., U.S. Representative from Louisiana.

(Editorial, Shreveport Journal)
Fulton, Hon. James G., U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania.-
Fulton, Hon. Richard Fulton, U.S. Representative from Tennessee..
Gubser, Hon. Charles S., U.S. Representative from California...
Hosmer, Hon. Craig, U.S. Representative from California..
Hunt, Hon. John E., U.S. Representative from New Jersey
King, Hon. Carleton J., U.S. Representative from New York.
Langen, Hon. Odin, U.S. Representative from Minnesota.
McCulloch, Hon. William M., U.S. Representative from Ohio -
McDonald, Hon. Jack H., U.Ś. Representative from Michigan..
Nelsen, Hon. Ancher, U.S. Representative from Minnesota.
Nolan, Robert W., national executive secretary, Fleet Reserve Asso-

ciation.
Papantonio, Edward, chairman, National Americanism Committee,

VFW, New York, N.Y..
Reid, Hon. Charlotte T., U.S. Representative from Illinois.
Roberts, Hon. Ray, U.S. Representative from Texas--
Schadeberg, Hon. Henry C., U.S. Representative from Wisconsin..
Shriver, Hon. Garner E., U.S. Representative from Kansas -
Staggers, Hon. Harley O., U.S. Representative from West Virginia...
Sutherland, Arthur E., Professor of Law, Harvard University --
Taylor, Hon. Roy A., U.S. Representative from North Carolina -
Watson, Hon. Albert W., U.S. Representative from South Carolina.-
Willis, Hon. Edwin E., U.S. Representative from Louisiana..

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H.R. 271. AND SIMILAR BILLS, TO PROHIBIT

DESECRATION OF THE FLAG

MONDAY, MAY 8, 1967
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

SUBCOMMITTEE No. 4 OF THE
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in room 2141, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Byron G. Rogers (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Rogers, Whitener, Jacobs, McClory, and Poff.

Present also: Benjamin L. Zelenko, counsel, and Donald G. Benn, associate counsel.

Mr. ROGERS. The hearing will come to order.

Today, Subcommittee No. 4 of the Committee on the Judiciary begins hearings on measures designed to make the desecration of the flag a Federal crime.

Over 60 proposals are now pending before this subcommittee which would make it a Federal offense to publicly mutilate, deface, defile, Tefy, trample upon or cast contempt upon, either by word or act, the og of the United States.

The bills before us differ primarily with respect to the severity of the criminal penalties they would impose. The greatest number of identical bills impose a fine of $1,000 "and" imprisonment for 1 year.

Other measures provide for maximum penalties of five years' imprisonment and/or $10,000 fine. Still other bills provide lower penalties.

The committee desires to proceed in its hearings with appropriate expedition and due deliberation. It will receive testimony from congressional sponsors of the legislation and from organizations who have indicated an interest in a proposed Federal criminal statute. * Without objection, the text of the measures dealing with the subject will be included in the record at this point,

(The documents referred to follow :)

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[H.R. 271, 90th Cong., first sess. ]

A BILL To prohibit desecration of the flag Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That (a) section 3 of title 4, United States Code, is amended by designating the first sentence thereof as subsection (a) and the second sentence thereof as subsection (c), and by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

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