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of T. occur, viz., eight true Ts., and two species of Bathrio. above, was b. 1773, d. 1857; he was U.S. senator from Ohio cephalus. The Tæniadæ, or true Ts., may be distinguished 1839-45. from the other families of the order Cestoidea (cestoids' or Tappan', (LEWIS,) brother of Arthur and BENJAMIN T. Ts. in the popular sense) by the possession of a small, dis- b. 1788, d. 1873; he suffered greatly in consequence of his tinct head, furnished with four simple oval or round suctorial antislavery sentiments; was prominent in the American Mis. disks, (suckers,) and commonly also with a more or less sionary Association and other charitable enterprises. strongly pronounced rostellum (proboscis aced at the sum- Tappan' Sea, or Tappan' Bay, 12 m. I. and 4 w., is mit in the median line. The common T., T'cenia solium, merely an expansion of the Hudson River. See TARRYTOWN. derives its Linnæan title from the idea that it is always a Tapʻping, an operation usually performed on the abdo. solitary worm. Although this is commonly, it is not by any men, gives great relief when the abdomen becomes distended means always, the case. The full-grown T. (strobila) has been with fluid contained in the peritoneal sac, or in an ovarian known from the earliest times, and is described by Hippoc- cyst. A small incision is then made about 2 in. below the rates, Aristotle, and Pliny; but its organization and mode navel, through which the cutting surfaces of the trocharof development have only been properly understood during the instrument used in this operation—are passed. The fluid the last few yrs. The segments of which it is composed vary escapes through this instrument. T. of the chest is occasion. in size, and number from 800 to 1,000. From 10 to 35 ft. ally required for the relief of empyema and other effusions in may be regarded as representing its ordinary length; its the cavity of the pleura. T. of the head has been occasion. breadth at about the widest part being j in. The head ally found successful in hydrocephalus. is very small and globular. How long a T. can naturally Tap'ti, a river of the British presidency of Bombay, exist in an intestinal canal is not known; but there is doubt. India, rises in the Saugur and Nerbuddah territories, flows less a period at which the parasite spontaneously separates W. through Scindhia's dominions and the districts of Can. from the intestinal mucous membrane of its host-a period deish and Surat to its mouth in the Gulf of Cambay. It is probably coinciding with the shedding and non-renewal of the 441 m. 1., but can hardly be said to be navigable. circlet of hooks. When this separation occurs the whole Tar, a well-known substance, for which it is difficult to length of the worm is expelled, in the same manner as if the frame a definition, since it "aries in composition, color, and parasite had been first killed by the administration of a ver consistence, and is derived from all three kingdoms of nature, mifuge medicine. The common T. may cause disease, and In various parts of the world it occurs as a natural min. even death, by its aggressions, either in the adult or in the eral product, and is known under the various names of larval stage of its existence. A mature T. in the intestinal bitumen, asphalt, petroleum, natural T. As an animal prod. canal may give rise to a series of anomalous symptoms, in- uct, a species of T. is obtained from the destructive distil. cluding vertigo, noises in the ears, impairment of sight, itch-lation of bones employed in preparing bone-black. The dis. ing of the nose and anus, salivation, dyspepsia, and loss of ap- tillate separates into a heavier layer of black animal T.petite, colic, pains over the epigastrium and in different parts commonly known as bone-oil, or Dippels Animal Oiland a of the abdomen, palpitation, syncope, the sensation of weight lighter layer of watery solution of sesquicarbonate of am. in the abdomen, pains and lassitude in the limbs, and emaci- monia, commonly known as bone-liquor, and much employed ation. Many cases are on record in which hysterical fits, in the preparation of various salts of ammonia. This animal chorea, epilepsy, convulsions of various kinds, and even T. is chiefly used for the lubrication of machinery. The mania, have been induced by the irritation excited by this vegetable kingdom is, however, the most important source of parasite, and have ceased at once on its removal. The other T. On submitting wood to destructive distillation in closed five Ts. infesting man may be passed over without notice, vessels, we obtain a large number of products, some of which as being of very rare occurrence. Treatment of T.— are gaseous and some liquid, and of the latter one portion is The drugs generally used are turpentine, kousso, "kamala, soluble and the other insoluble in water. This insoluble pumpkin seeds, pomegranate root-bark, areca nut, and last, portion constitutes wood-T., and is composed of a mixture of but not least, male-fern. Success depends not so much on various liquids holding solid matters in solution or in suspen. the choice of the remedy as upon the mode of administering sion. Stockholm T. and American T. are chiefly prepared it, and of observing the results accurately. The patient from the resinous wood of the pine, and especially of the should fast for a day, taking only milk or soup, and in the root of the tree. The specific gravity of ordinary T. is about afternoon take a dose of castor oil or a dram of compound 1.040. Peat yields a T. very similar to wood-T. Coal yields jalap powder. The next morning take the following mixture : even a larger number of products of distillation than are Turpentine, 1 dram; ethereal extract of male-fern, 1 dram; yielded by wood. mucilage of gum-arabic, 2 ounces. A half hour later take a Ta'ra, or Ta'ro, (Colocasia macrorhiza,) a plant of the dose of castor oil. Have a large vessel of warm water ready natural order Aracec, of the same genus to receive the worm. Pelletierine sulphate, 6 grains ; tan- with the Cocco or Eddoes, and cultivated nin, 7 grains; simple syrup, 2 drams; or, Pelletierine tannate, for its roots, which are a principal article 7 grains ; simple syrup, 4 drams, may be used in like manner. of food in the South Sea Islands. The Again, pumpkin seeds with hard skin removed, 1 ounce; roots are 12 to 16 in. l., and as much in sugar, 6 drams; milk, 2 ounces, is also highly recommended, girth. They are washed to take away used in the same manner as described above.

their acridity, and cooked in the same Tapioca. See MANIOC and CASSAVA.

way as bread-fruit, the rind being first Ta’pir, (Tapirus,) a genus of Ungulata, of the section scraped off. The leaves are used as Perissodactyla, or odd-toed Ungu

spinach. lates, having a bulky form, with

Ta'ra Fern, (Pteris esculenta,) a moderately long legs; the skin

species of brake, the root (rhizome) of thick, the hair short; the tail

which was one of the principal articles of small; the neck thick; the ears

food of the New Zealanders before the short; the eyes small; the muz

settlement of New Zealand by British

Tara. zle elongated; the nose pro

colonists. This fern comes to perfection longed into a short, flexible pro

only in good soils, and there the plant is 10 ft. b. Plants boscis, which, however, does not

three yrs. old furnish the best roots, i in. in circumference. terminate in an organ of touch


Tar'antism, a leaping or dancing mania originating in, and prehension, like that of the

or supposed to originate in, an animal poison. The name is elephant. The best-known species is the AMERICAN T., supposed to be derived from the ground-spider, tarantula, (T. Americanus,) which is common in almost all parts of S. which conveyed the poison into the human body by its bite. Am., its range extending from Cent. Am. as far S. as the The gesticulations, contortions, and cries somewhat resemblo Strait of Magellan.

those observed in St. Vitus's Dance. Tappan', (ARTHUR,) a New York merchant widely known Ta'ranto, anc. Tarentum, a town of southern Italy, in as a patron of religious and patriotic organizations, tract, the prov. of Lecce, situated on a rocky islet between the Mare Bible, and other societies; he endowed Lane Seminary at Piccolo, (Little Sea,) on the E. side of the town, and the Mare Cincinnati, a professorship at Auburn Theological Seminary, Grande, (Great Sea,) or Gulf of Taranto, on the W. The Mare and built Tappan Hall at Oberlin; assisted in founding the Piccolo is famous for its immense abundance of shell-fish, and Journal of Commerce and the Emoncipator ; and was first a considerable portion of the population (27,546) derives their president of the Antislavery Society; b. in Mass. 1786, d. subsistence from the oyster and muscle fisheries. Ancient 1865.

Tarentum was a far more famous and splendid city than ito Tappan', (BENJAMIN,) statesman, and a brother of the modern representative. 157



Taran'tula, (Lycosa tarantula,) a species of spider, of a Tare, (Ervum,) a genus of plants of the natural order Le genus to which the name wolf-spider is

guminose, sub-order Papilionaceæ, distinguished from Vician often given, a native of the S. of Europe.

(see Vetch,) to which it is nearly allied, by a capitate stigmas It derives its name from the city of Ta.

downy all over. It contains only a few species of weak climb ranto, in Italy, where it is very plentiful.

ing plants, natives of the temperate parts of the eastern hemIt is one of the largest of European

isphere. One of these is the Lentil. Two, (E. hirsutum and spiders, of a somewhat elongated shape,

E, tetraspermum,) generally known by the name of T., are with rather long legs. Its bite is much

common in corn-fields and hedges. They have very small flow dreaded, and has been supposed to cause

ers and pods; the leaves are pinnate, and the leaflets small. the disease called Tarantism. Several spe

Tar'get, in its modern sense, is the mark for aiming at in cies of spider nearly allied to the T. are

practicing with the cannon, rifle, or bow and arrow. In its found in different parts of the U. S.

more ancient meaning, a T., or targe, was a shield, circular in Tarare, a manufacturing town of Tarantula. form, cut out of ox-hide, mounted on light but strong wood, France, Dept. of Rhone, 21 m. from Lyons.

and strengthened by bosses, spikes, etc. The muslins of T. are famous for their fineness. Pop. 12,888. Targowitz', in Russia, a small town in the Govt. of

Taras'con, a town of France, in the Dept. of Bouches- Kiev, on the borders of Kherson, was the scene (1792) of a du-Rhone ; pop. 7,582.

confederation of the five Polish nobles (Potocki, Branecki, Tarax'acum, or Dan'delion Root, is employed to a Bzeureski, and two others of little note) who were adverse ta considerable extent in medicine. There is no very satisfac- the constitution of May 3, 1791. tory analysis of this juice, but it is said to contain mannite, Tar'gum, (Chaldee, from tirgem, a word of uncertain resin, sugar, gum, caoutchouc, and a crystallizable matter origin, meaning “ to translate, explain,”) the general term for termed taraxicine, on which its active properties depend. the Aramaic versions of the 0. T., which became necessary

Tarbagata'i, a frontier town of Chinese Turkestan. It when, after and perhaps during the Babylonian exile, Hebrew stands at the foot of the mountains of the same name, in a began to die out as the popular language, and was supplanted plain watered by the Imil, and with extensive meadows and by“ Chaldee,” an idiom, or rather a family of idioms. The pasture grounds in the vicinity. Pop. 4,000.

origin of the T. itself is shrouded in mystery. The first signs

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Tarbes, a town in the S. of France, cap. of the Dept. of (of it—as an already fixed institution—have been found by Hautes-Pyrénées, ou the left bank of the Adour; pop. 14,060. some in the Book of Nehemiah, and, according to traditions

, Tar'digrada, or bear-animalcules, form an order of Ezra and his coadjutors were its original founders. How Arachnida lower than, but in some respects allied to, the mites, ever this be, there can be no doubt that its beginnings be(Acarina.) Their bodies are transparent, rather long, with long to a comparatively early period. four pairs of short legs ending in claws. The head is rudi- Tari'fa, a sea-port town of Spain, 20 m. S.-W. of Gibraltar.

It is the most S. town of Europe. Pop. 8,300. Fig. 1

Tar'iff, (from Tarifa, where, during the rule of the Moors Fig. 3

in Spain, duties where collected,) a table or catalogue gener. ally drawn up in alphabetical order, of the duties, drawbacks, bounties, etc., charged or allowed on different kinds of mer. chandise, as settled

by authority, or agreed to between different states. The principles of the Ts. of different countries

depend on their respective commercial policy, and on the Fig. 2

fluctuating interests and wants of the community.

Tarlatan, a thin, gauze-like fabric of cotton used for ladies' ball dresses, etc. It is usually dyed or printed in colors. Tarare, in France, is the chief center of this manufacture.

Tarn, a dept, in the S. of France, bounded on the N. by the Depts. of Aveyron and Tarn-et-Garonne, receives its name from the river Tarn; area 2,217 sq. m., pop. 339,827.

Tarn-et-Garonne, a dept. in the S. of France, bounded on the S.-E. by the Dept. of Tarn; area 1,436 sq. m., pop. 200,390.

Tarno'pol, a town of Austria, in Galicia, situated on the Tardigrade, (Macrobiotus.)

Sered; pop. 26,097. Fig. 1, seen from above ; Fig. 2, seen from the side, with the egg-sac at- Tar'now, a town of Austrian Galicia, near the Dunajee, tached Fig. 3, enlarged view of a foot.

a navigable tributary of the Vistula ; pop. 21,800. mentary, with suctorial mouth-parts, and the species are her. Tarpaulin, a large sheet of the coarsest linen or hempen maphroditic. They have no heart, and breathe through the cloth, saturated with tar to render it waterproof. It is used skin. They live in ditches where sphagnum moss grows, for covering loaded wagons, the hatchways of ships, etc., as a and like the Rotifers revive, after being apparently dead and temporary protection from wet. dried up, upon being placed in water. Few species are known. Tarpe'ian Rock, (Lat. Rupes Tarpeia, or Mons Tarpeiras)

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the name originally applied to the whole of the Capitoline Hill, Tarquin'ius, the name of two kings of Rome, with the Rome, but latterly confined to a portion of the S. part of the hill. legends regarding whom the fortunes of the city are closely In the time of Romulus, Tarpeia, (a vestal virgin,) the daughter interwoven. Demaratus, a Corinthian noble, emigrated from of Sp. Tarpeius, governor of the Roman citadel on the Capi-| Greece, and settled in Tarquinii, in Etruria, where he mar.

ried an Etruscan wife, by whom he had two sons, Aruns and Lucumo. Aruns died during his father's life-time, but Lucumo married into one of the noblest Etruscan families. By the advice of his wife, Tanaquil, Lucumo set out for Rome, accompanied by a large train of followers, and was hospitably received, and soon after admitted to the rights of citizen. ship, whereupon he took the name of L. Tar. quinius Priscus. The Roman monarch, Ancus Marcius, appointed him guardian of his chil. dren, and on the death of the former the Senate and the citizens unanimously elected him to the vacant throne. His reign was a glorious one, but after a reign of 38 yrs. he was assassinated at the instigation of the sons of Ancus Marcius. L. TARQUIN THE PROUD, son of the preceding, having murdered his father. in-law, Servius Tullius, at the instigation of his wife, is represented in the legend as usurping the vacant throne. After a reign characterized

by tyranny and cruelty T. was deposed, and Do090"

with his sons was obliged to flee. D. 495. mu

Tarrago'na, a sea-port of Spain, chief city of the modern prov. of the same name, stands on the Mediterranean shore at the mouth of the Francoli; pop. 19,500.

Tarʻrytown, a village of Westchester Co., N. Y., on the E. bank of the Hudson River, 27 m. N. of New York. It is beautifully situated on a lake-like expansion of the river, called

the Tappan Sea, surrounded with fine scenery, View of Tappan Sea, at Tarrytown, N. Y.

and filled with elegant residences. It has

six churches and four academies, contains toline, tempted by their offer to give her what they wore on | “Sunnyside” and the burial-place of Washington Irving, and is their left arms, opened a gate of the fortress to the Sabine noted as the scene of the capture of Major André, Pop. 3.562. king, Titus Tatius, who had come to revenge the rape on the Tar'shish, probably the same as Tartessus, a city and emSabine women. The Sabines crushed Tarpeia to death beneath porium of the Phænicians in Spain, somewhere near the mouth their shields, and she was buried in the part of the hill which of the Guadalquivir. It is frequently mentioned in Scripture, bears her name. Subsequently, persons condemned of trea- Tar'sia-work, a beautiful kind of marquetry made in son to the state were sometimes hurled from the T. R. Italy. It is produced by inlaying pieces of colored wood sq

Tar'pon, or Tar'pum, a fish which has its habitat in as to represent figures and landscapes. the western Atlantic and in the Gulf of Mexico, ranging N. Tarsi'idæ, a family of mammals, distinguished in some to Cape Cod and S. to northern Brazil; it is somewhat abun- particulars from the Lemurids. Only one species, (Tarsus) dant in the West Indies, and stragglers have been taken as I about the size of a rat, is found in Borneo and Celebes. far to the E. as the Ber. mudas. The T. is the "silver-fish” of Pensacola, the Grande Écaille or “ Grandy Kye” as it is pronounced, (“ large scale fish,”) and the Savanilla of Tex. It is known to naturalists as the Me galops thrissoides, ranging from 50 to 200 lbs. in weight, and from 41 to over 6 ft. in l.not unlike a cross between a huge herring, to which family it belongs, and a huge blue-fish in its general proportions. It has large

Di protuberant eyes, and an ugly mouth that opens on the fish's nose, covered on either side with a hard, bony, semicircular flap, that gives the effect of a jowl. Behind, and contiguous to the dorsal fin, is & sort of bony bayonet called “the feather," some 8 or 9 in. in l., that

Tarsus. protrudes into the air in the direction of the tail, forming an acute angle with the line Tarsiped'idæ, a family of marsupial mammals, about as of the back. The body is covered with brilliant silver scales, large as a mouse, feeding on insects and honey, and found in ranging in size from a silver dollar to a small saucer; the flesh western Australia. is sometimes eaten. Of late T.-fishing with rod and line has be- Tar'sus, anciently the chief city of Cilicia, and one of the come an established sport, the fish being famous for gameness. I most important in all Asia Minor, situated on both sides of

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the navigable river Cydnus, in the midst of a beautiful and Taschereau, (ELEAZAR A., D.D.,) prelate; R. C. Archproductive plain, and about 18 m, from the sea ; pop. 30,000. bishop of Quebec 1871; Cardinal 1896; b. 1820, d. 1898.

Tar'sus, the part of the foot articulating with the leg. Taschereau, (JULES A.), a Fr. journalist, b. in France See Foot, STRUCTURE OF.

1801; was made Director-Gen. of the National Library 1858, Tar'tan, a small vessel carrying but one mast, its large and superintended the publication of its catalogue; d. 1874. sail extended by a lateen yard;

Tashkand', till recently a town of Independent Turkestan, much used in the coasting trade

but now in the possession of Russia, is situated in the khanate of the Mediterranean.

of Khokan, 92 m. N.-W. of Khokan, the cap.; pop. 156,414. Tar'tan, Plaid, a pattern

Tas'man, (ABEL JANSSEN,) circumnavigated the Australian woven in cloth, in which bands

continent in 1642-43, of which voyage an account was pubof different colors are woven or

lished in 1722; b. at Hoorn, Holland, in 1600, d. 1644, while printed side by side, both the

on a second voyage of exploration. warp and weft way of the mate

Tasmaʼnia, formerly Van Die'men's Land, a considrial, thus giving the well-known

erable island in the South Pacific Ocean, between the parallels checkered pattern. This is probably the oldest pattern ever woven. The plaid pattern admits of a very great variety of

Tartan. modifications by the introduction of different colors, and by varying the amount of each color

Ringaroma employed. These colored plaids were in great favor in the

Georgetown Highlands of Scotland, where each clan wore a particular kind as its distinctive dress.

A S M Α Ν Ι Α Tar'tar, a mixture of bitartrate of potash and tartrate of


A Perth lime, is a deposit formed from wine, and known in its crude

Longford form as Argol.

VAND MEN'S Tartar, Cream of. See TARTARIC ACID.

Campbelltoward Tar'tar, Foliated Earth of, an old name for acetate


Marlborough o of potash, in consequence of the foliated, satiny masses in which that salt occurs.

Tar'tar, Sol'uble, a term applied by some chemists 'to neutral tartrate of potash, and by others to borotartaric acid.

Richmond Tar'tar Emet'ic, a soluble double tartrate of antimony and potash. It is a poison in large doses, but cases of poisoning by it are not very common. The emetic properties of the salt generally insures its speedy rejection from the stomach. Two grains have proved fatal to an adult. Treatment. If vomiting has not been produced it should be brought about

SEG by tickling the fauces and administering copious draughts of warm water. Astringent infusions, such as of galls, oak bark, Peruvian bark, act as antidotes, and should be given of 40° 41' and 43° 40'S. lat., and between 144° 30' and 148° promptly; powdered yellow cinchona bark may be used until 30' E. long., lying to the S. of and separated from Australia by the infusion is prepared.

Bass's Strait, and belonging to Great Britain. Its greatest i. Tartar'ic Acid. Ordinary T. A. is usually seen in the is 240 m., and its greatest w. from E. to W. 200 m.;

its area, form of colorless, transparent, oblique, rhombic prisms, which including the adjacent islands, about 26,215 sq. m. The capiare not affected by the action of the air, have an agreeable tal is Hobart Town, with a pop. of 24,905, situated at the base acid taste, and are soluble in water and alcohol. On heating of Mount Wellington. The second chief town is LauncesT. A. to about 340° it fuses, and at a slightly higher tempera- ton; pop. 17,108. Total pop. 146,667. There are 2,505 m. ture it becomes successively changed, without losing weight, of telegraph. The first line of R.R., 45 m. l., was opened into two metameric acids, metatartaric and isotartaric acids, 1871. There are now 495 m. open for traffic. Since 1854 authe former of which is bibasic, and the latter monobasic. At thority has been invested in a Parliament, consisting of the about 374° two atoms of the acid lose one equivalent of governor as the queen's representative and two elective water, and tartralic acid is formed. If the same temperature Houses—the Legislative Council of 16 and the Assembly be maintained a little longer half the basic water is expelled, of 32 members. The island was first discovered by Tasman and tartrelic acid is formed; and, finally, all the basic water on Dec. 1, 1642, and named by him “Van Diemen's Land,” in is driven off, and anhydrous tartaric acid, or tartaric anhy- honor of his patron, the then governor of the Dutch possesdride, remains in the form of a white, porous mass, insoluble sions in the East Indies. During the next century no visit is in water, alcohol, or ether.

recorded. In 1803 Lieut. Bowen was dispatched from Sydney Tar'tar of the Teeth is a deposit of salts of lime and with a few soldiers and convicts to form å settlement in the organic matter from the saliva, and usually occurs most S. of T., which was finally fixed on the spot where Hobart abundantly on the inferior incisors. If it is suffered to Town now stands. From 1817 commenced a rapid increase aocumulate it causes inflammation and absorption of the in the number of free settlers, who received grants of land gum, and gradual loosening of the teeth. The accumulating in proportion to the capital which they brought into the of this substance may usually be prevented if due attention colony. In 1825 T. was declared independent of New South is paid to the cleaning of the teeth.

Wales. It has a warm, equable, subtropical climate; prevaTar'tars, or, more properly, Ta’tars, was originally a lent winds N.-E. and S.-W. name of the Mongolic races, but came to be extended to all Tasman'nia, a genus of shrubs of the natural order the tribes brought under Mongolic sway by Genghis Khan Magnoliace. T. aromatica is an evergreen bush of Van and his_successors, including Tungusic and Turkic

races. Diemen's Land. Every part of the plant Tartarus, (Gr. Tartaros ; the name is probably onomato- is highly aromatic and pungent. The fruit poetic, the reduplication being designed to express something is occasionally used as pepper. terrible or disagreeable, like Barbaros, Karkaron, and many Tas'ses, skirts of iron to cover the other words,) according to Homer, is a deep and sunless abyss, thighs, worn as an appendage to the ancient as far below Hades as earth is below heaven, and closed in by corselet. iron gates. Into T. Zeus hurled those who rebelled against him, Tassisu'don, a city and the cap. of as Kronos and the Titans. Afterward the name was some- Bhotan, stands on the right bank of the times employed as synonymous with Hades or the under world. Godadda, an affluent of the Brahmaputra.

Tar'tary, (prop. Tatary,) the name under which, in the Mid- Tas'so, (BERNARDO,) an Ital. poet of dle Ages, was comprised the whole central belt of Central Asia considerable distinction, but most famous and eastern Europe, from the Sea of Japan to the Dnieper. as the father of the illustrious TorquaTO ; Tartralic Acid, Tartrelic Acid. See TARTARIC ACID. was b. at Bergamo 1493, d. 1569.

Tasses, or Taces. Tartuffe', the name of the chief character in Molière's Tas'so, (TORQUATO,) one of the greatest most celebrated comedy, which has become a synonym in all poets of Italy, and son of the preceding, was b. at Sorrento languages for a hypocritical pretender to religion.

1544. His great work was the Gerusalemme Liberata, ap



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