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which expressed how much he miraculous, here arises a contest of was loved by his friends, respect- two opposite experiences, 'or proof ed by the clergy, and revered by against proof. Now a miracle is a
violation of the laws of nature; and as all; how sedulously he examined, a firm and unalterable experience has how firmly he defended the truth; established these laws, the proof awith what benevolence he lived, gainst a miracle, from the very na
ture of the fact, is as complete as any with what humble confidence he
argument from experience can possi. died! What would be said of bly be imagined ; and if so, it is an such a publisher? But what is undeniable consequence, that it can. past can easily be forgiven, as not be surmounted by any proof what. the editors have now explicitly
ever derived from human testimony." informed their readers what is to Miracles, the author's principal aim
In Dr. Campbell's Dissertation on be received under the sanction of
is to shew the fallacy of Mr. Hume's Dr. Rees' responsibility, and what argument; which he has most suc. under that of their own.
cessfully done, by another single argu. The article ABORTION has
ment, in the following manner :
“ The evidence arising from human been enlarged with a number of testimony is not solely derived from observations on the causes and experience ; on the contrary, testimoprevention of this misfortune, ny hath a natural influence on belief either when habitual or accident- antecedent to experience. The early al, with some advice on the
and unlimited assent given to testi.
mony by children gradually contracts, proper treatment of the patient, as they advance in life : it is, therein such circumstances.
fore, more consonant to truth to say, Under the article Abridgment, that our diffidence in testimony is the the practice of abridging books result of experience, than that our that are read, or the lectures of sides, the uniformity of experience in
faith in it has this foundation, Bepublic professors in the various favour of any fact, is not a proof a. departments of science, is recom- gainst its being reversed in a particumended as highly useful to assist
lar instance. The evidence arising both the judgment and memory.
from the single testimony of a man of Two excellent specimens of the
known veracity, will go far to estab.
lish a belief in its being actually re., kind of abridgment recommend- versed. If his testimony be confirm. ed, are subjoined, and which we ed by a few others of the same charhave extracted for the use of our
acter, we cannot withhold our assent
to the truth of it. readers.
Now, though the
operations of nature are governed by In the Essay on Miracles, Mr.
uniform laws, and though we have not Hume's design is to prove, that mir
the testimony of our senses in favour of acles, which have not been the imme. any violation of them ; still, if in pardiate objects of our
ticular instances we have the testimo
senses, cannot reasonably be believed upon the testi
ny of thousands of our fellow-crea. mony of others. His argument is,
tures, and those too men of strict in. “ That experience, which in some
tegrity, swayed by no motives of am.. things is variable, in others uniform,
bition or interest, and governed by the is our only guide in reasoning 'con' principles of common sense, that they cerning matters of fact. Variable ex
were actually witnesses of these vio. perience gives rise to probability only ;
lations, the constitution of our nature an uniform experience amounts
obliges us to believe them.” proof. Our belief of any fact from
These two examples contain the the testimony of eye witnesses is de.
substance of about 400 pages. rived from no other principle than our
The article Absorbents, is enexperience of the veracity of human larged in such a manner as to testimony. If the fact attested be suggest several new thoughts to
the medical student on the doc- deliberately composed a palliatrine of cutaneous absorption. tion, which is admitted into Dr.
ACACIA, in Botany, has receiv- Rees' work. The reader of ed a valuable addition from Dr. Homer knows that a more savage Mitchell
destroyer of the lives and happiUnder the word Academy has ness of men, a inore zealous bigot been introduced an account of to cruelty and revenge, than the Academy of Fine Arts in Achilles, rarely, if ever, existed, Pennsylvania, of the Academy even in imagination. The of Medicine in Philadelphia, and tendency of such an example, of the American Academy of operating on the corrupt inclinaArts in New York. The account tions of men, ought to be counterof the Massachusetts Academy acted by every possible means ; of Arts and Sciences has been so that, though we admire the advantageously enlarged. We genius of Homer, we may be hope the editors will assiduously taught to detest the character of endeavour to supply all deficien- his heroes, and be no more in dancies of the English edition on ger of imitating them, than of American subjects.
throwing ourselves into a con: * AccomMODATION, in Theology. flagration, on which we gaze at a A great part of this, as it appear- distance, with sublime astonished in the English edition, hias ment. For a just criticism on been omitted in the American Homer, and his favourite Achiledition without giving notice to les, see Foster's Essays, a work the reader, or mentioning the rea- which will give great pleasure to sons for the omissions. Though every Christian reader of taste. we do not think subscribers have Short, but useful addition's have lost any thing valuable under this been made to the articles Acid article, yet for the reasons alrea- and Acorus. dy mentioned we disapprove of ACTION, in Oratory, is a any alteration of a work given to blundering article, in which the the public as the Cyclopedia of writer comes to a conclusion Dr. Rees, without explicit marks directly contrary to all his reasonof such alteration.
ings. His arguments tend to - ACHILLES. We confess our show the impropriety of using selves not well pleased that Cbris. action in public speaking at all, tian critics, and Christian edi- while his conclusion is, that, if tors, should contribute to raise properly conducted, it“ gives to still higher the admiration of the speaker in the senate, at the Homer's hero, when it is already bar, and in the pulpit, very great more than sufficiently excited by advantage in enforcing his arguthe charms of poetry. The ment and impressing an audicharacter which Horace gives of ence.” Can it be doubted by a this mad warrior, Impiger, ir- grave and learned man especially, ecundus, &c. though spirited, is whether action be allowable? As very far short of what he might well might it be doubted, whethhave said in truth ; but it seems er a man should be suffered to even this is too much in the speak in public. The best methopinion of Dr. Blair, who has ed, undoubtedly, will be followed
by those public speakers, who promote each other's happiness. endeavour to speak to purpose, As to their moral character, beand who use all the powers fore the fall, they truly and exactwiiich God has given them to ly resembled their Maker. It gain attention, and produce would have been well, if more useconviction. Much damage to ful knowledge, with respect to the the cause of religion has been first of mankind, had been collectdone by the opinion propagated ed and inserted in place of the faby some pious and well meaning bles of Rabbins,and Mahometans. divines, that there should be no In ADAM, Melchior, is an action in the pulpit ; as though error of the press, which is mena dull, uniform manner of read- tioned not so much on account of ing sermons were the most effec- its importance, as that the Editual way of influencing men to tors, if they should see this reattend to their most important view, may be cautious of errors interests. The rule for public in quotations from the learned speakers, which embraces all oth- languages; this not being the first er rules, is “ Act as though you we have seen. Books in general were earnest in your business." are very faulty in this respect.
ADAM, in Biography, is defi- Instead of Vitæ illustriorum cient in several important par. virorum, it should be illustriticulars. The reader ought to We ought in justice, how. be informed, what has generally ever, to say, that this work is been the opinion of divines, as to more free from errors of the the meaning of the threatening, press, than any similar one we In the day that thou eatest thereof have known. thou shalt surely die, or, as it is in. We are pleased to see that the Hebrew, dying thou shalt die. revolutionary patriot, SAMUEL It is certainly important, that this Adams, introduced into this portion of scripture should be work. A person desirous of interpreted rightly. We are not obtaining a good knowledge of backward to express our convic- American Biography will be sortion, that the denunciation im- ry however to find the article so plied death temporal and eternal. short and imperfect.
We unDying thou shalt die forever. derstand that voluminous and When the editors say,
" there is valuable papers of Mr. Adams', à certain dignity of intellect, as which throw much light on the well as rectitude of will, that is history of the American Rev. probably implied in the expres
olution, in possession of sions our image and our likeness," his heirs. We bope some patthey do not sufficiently explain riotic and enterprising bookthe nature of that dignity and seller will cheerfully lend his rectitude, with which Adam was aid in their publication. The endued by his Creator. Our first American editors will contribute parents bore the moral image of much to the gratification of the God; it was impossible they public by paying peculiar attenshould bear any other image of tion to the Biography of our him. They were perfectly holy, eminent countrymen. Of these pare, and benevolent, and every there are many whose lives have way disposed to serve God, and never been written, except in a
hasty manner for the perishable their virtues and their sufferings. columns of a newspaper.
The discourse now under review There are four articles under was delivered upon one of these the head of ADAMS, in Geogra- occasions, at the request of a phy, added, viz. a town in Massa- committee of the town, and was chusetts, a county in the state of published by their desire. Ohio, another in the Missisippi The anniversary has frequentTerritory, and another in Penn- ly been denominated" Forefathsylvania.
ers' day;" and we think it not imIn the article Ades or Hades, probable that this, or some simiDr. Rees has, with great proprie- lar circumstance, may have sugty, introduced the explanation gested “Whose are the Fathers" which Dr. Campbell has given (Rom. ix. 5) to the mind of the of this word. It ought to be preacher, as a text suited to the known to the mass of those, who occasion. read the Bible, that the word hell, After an appropriate introducin several instances in the New tion, he inquires, “Who these Testament, means the invisible fathers were ; what were their state, and embraces all the dead, characters; what were their reas distinguished from the living. ligious principles; and what The word, which conveys the privileges there are in a descent idea of the place of future punish- from them?" ment, though translated into Under the first head of inquiry, English by the word hell, is ge- it occurs to the mind of the henna, and not hades. The He- preacher, that the story of their brew word, which answers to forefathers was already familiar hades, viz. sheõl, ought, in the Old to them, and that the reiterated Testament, to have been trans- recital of it had left but little unlated to mean in some instances rehearsed; but he justly rethe grave, in others the invisible marks, that“ unless it be repeatstate, or the world of departed ed, when, in process of time, your spirits.
children shall say, what mean ye To be continued.
by this service ? the answer will be vague and unsatisfactory." In guarding against such an incon
venience, Dr. H. has judiciously A Discourse delivered at Ply, detailed the causes, which occamouth, 22d Dec. 1806, at the
sioned the removal of the fathAnniversary Commemoration of
ers; has adverted to the difficulthe first landing of the Fath
ties which attended it ; to their 'ers, A. D. 1620. By Abiel pious conduct upon this impors Holmes, D. D.
Cambridge. tant occasion; to the dangers 1806. pp. 32.
they afterwards encountered, and DESCENDED from some of the the hardships they endured ; and best of men, the inhabitants of to the merciful interpositions of Plymouth, (the first European set- divine providence in their favour. tlement in New-England) justly An enumeration of all these parglory in their ancestors, and cele- ticulars does not appear to have brate the anniversary of their land- been necessary in answering the ing, in grateful commemoration of question, who were the fathers
Yet there is so much connexion of which no one of their descenda between the latter and the former, ants will be ashamed, if he be not that no violence is done to the ashamed of the gospel of Christ. feelings of the reader upon this The privileges attending a occasion ; and the story is calcu. descent from such ancestors, forın lated to excite a particular inter- the next subject for consideraest in favour of the pilgrims. tion. After binting at those
Under the second head the possessed by the Jews, to which fathers are charlcterized, as "dis- the apostle alludes in the text, the tinguished by integrity, piety, preacher remarks, “ Not unlike Christian zeal, and primitive sim- these, men and brethren, are our plicity of manners :” and the privileges in deriving an origin names of a number are mentione from the fathers of New England. ed, who were eminent amongst To us, through their means, are them, “ These illustrious names, committed the same oracles of (the preacher remarks) and the God, which were transmitted by merits attached to them, are en- the Hebrew patriarchs to their tirely familiar to you ; nor would descendants, with the additional faithful tradition, or your own discovery of those things, which more faithful records ever suffer many prophets and kings desired them to pass into oblivion. To in vain to see. To us, too, through a tablet, however, less perishable the medium of our Christian faththan either of these, are those ers, are made the same promises, names committed ; and it ought which were made to the Hebrew to heighten the pleasures of this fathers; for the promises were day to reflect, that a biographer, unto them, and to their children, worthy of them, has at length and to all afar off, even as many been found. While faithful nar- as the Lord should call. To us rative, discriminating remark, has been transmitted from the and purity of style, continue to fathers, the reformed protestant be universally pleasing, the fath- religion, as free probably from ers of New England will live in human mixtures, as it can be the pages of BELKNAP.” found in any church in christen
Under the next head of inqui- dom. In our fathers, too, we ry the religious principles of the have the benefit of examples of forefathers are detailed at consid- exalted virtue and piety, which erable length ; this was the more would have adorned the church necessary, as they have been in the patriarchal, or the aposmuch misrepresented both by ig- tolic age.” norant and designing men. The He then recommends the recapitulation, whilst it shews « study of the history of the how anxious our fathers were to fathers, as the history of men, found their faith upon the word who were but little known to the of God, and to contend earnestly world, and for that reason often for it, as being thus founded, must misapprehended and injuriously reprove many of their descend- aspersed; who though pronouncants for their lukewarmness re- ed by some to be bigots, and by specting it, and their departure others enthusiasts, were truly from its principles ; " principles lights shining in a dark place :