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established. If he meets with of the gospel open to his view some disappointments, still he glorious and endless prospects. maintains his resolution, and Faith appropriates an interest in pursues his course ; he will not the promised blessings, and hope turn aside to avoid the evils be- begins the enjoyment of them. fore him ; for he believes these, Amidst the changes of the if they meet him, may be the world he rests in the immutable means of improving his virtue, God. In times of danger he and ensuring eventual success ; dwells secure in the secret place that some rough passages will of the Most High, and abides teach him to tread more cautious- serene under the shadow of the ly, and will prepare him to en- Almighty. In worldly embarrassjoy more pleasantly the smooth- ments he keeps his mind cheer. er parts of his journey. As ful and unrufiled by a humble long as he finds himself in the trust in divine wisdom. He is path of wisdom, he feels no solicitous only to understand and anxicey what may be before him ; pursue the path of virtue and for this, he knows, will lead him righteousness; thus, he knows, safely along, and bring him out he shall enjoy peace, and, whathappily at the end. And whata ever may be his lot in life, no ever may happen by the way, he evil will ultimately befall him. believes it will aid his progress, He commits his soul to God in and facilitate his journey through well doing, as to a faithful Crelife. When anxious thoughts ator, casting all his cares upon arise and utter their complaints, him. he rebukes and silences them by When death approaches, he the recollection, that he has calls up the exercise of that faith, pursued the line of duty, and by which he has lived, and resigns committed his way to God. If himself anew to God in humble his worldly designs miscarry, he hope, that as he has been faithful will not murmur; for he has to the death, so now he shall rest committed them all to God's from his labours, and his works disposal. He knows there is a shall follow him. plain inconsistency in committing That you may enjoy the cons his works to God, and complain- scious pleasures of religion in ing of God's allotments. This is lifc, and experience its solid comtaking back what he once resign- forts in death, is the wish and ed, and reclaiming what he had prayer of your affectionate pas given away.
EUSEBIUS. How happy is the life of the good Christian, who lives by faith in God, and trusts with him the
A LETTER ON THE AUTHOR OF interests of time and eternity?
THE HE A consciousness of the rectitude of his heart and the purity of his Dear Sir, intentions give him peace and It was with pleasure, I undera serenity. A persuasion of God's took the task of relieving your wisdom, goodness, faithfulness mind, with regard to the authenand power fills him with conf-. ticity of the Epistle to the Hedence and hope. The promises brews.
brews. I svall bow try to eluci
date this subject further, and the priests, its prime minisgive you a more correct opinion ters. of this book and its presumptive Learned commentators pretty author, in the words, as far as generally agree, that Paul is not it is possible, of the excellent its author. There are, however, Venema, who after Mill and mighty exceptions, Mill and Michaelis, has thrown further Michaelis. But if not Paul, who light upon this subject.
then ? Luther and Beza have The letter was probably writ. given it to Apollos, and Venema ten to the Jewish Christians at has defended this opinion with Alexandria ; unquestionably, to his usual acuteness. Before copysome of that denomination, unit ing his arguments, it may ed in a church ; as appears from spread more light upon this subchap. xiii. 18, 19. This suppo- ject, to say a few words about sition is strengthened from the Apollos. style, as well as from the use of Apollo, Apollos, or ApollodoPhilo's phraseology, who too was rus, was a companion of Timoan Alexandrian. Dr. MillandJ.D. thy and Titus, Titus iii. 13, Michaelis understood it from the Heb. xiii. 23. He was eloquent Hierosolymitans. But the style of and deeply initiated in the knowl, this epistle is an objection against edge of the divine mysteries and this conjecture. It was probably rites of the Mosaic law. This is written in Greek, as it bears evident, not only from the epistle more marks of an original com- to the Hebrews, which you might position, than of a translation. deem here a precarious assump It was unquestionably written tion, but from his title royses elobefore the destruction of Jerusa- quent, Acts xviii. 24. and i Cor. lem, of which more than one ev- iii. 6. Paul planted, Apollos wa. idence will appear to the atten- tored. He was born a Jew, at tive reader of the epistle. The Alexandria, Acts xviii. 24. deepauthor's aim was to confirm the ly versed in the books of the Old Jewish Christians, still stagger- Testament, mighty in the scripe ing and inclining to the Mosaictures ; of a fervent spirit, who at rituals, in the Christian faith, and Ephesus, though only acquainted wean them from their attachment with the doctrine of John the to the institutions of the Mosaic Baptist, and knowing only the law. He executed his design first elements of the kingdom of with great skill and address, main. God, not even knowing the effu. taining throughout the epistle, sion of the Holy Ghost, Acts xix, and illustrating the position, that, patronized, fearless in the cause under the gospel economy, un- of Christ against the Jews, limited obedience was due to Acts xviii. 25. (Venema reads Christ; deriving his arguments & Polos pro dxgißws, as Philip i. 14) from the transcendent excellency while he alierwards was more of Christ above all angels who accurately instructed by Aquila, held a high place under the Si. ang.Besiqov ib. v. 26. Thus better nai covenant, (chap. i. & ii.) above learned, he went to Achaia, and Moses its institutor; above the tarried at Corinth, where he was prophets, who were aiding it, of great use to the believers, (chap. iii. & iv.) and above all helping them much, who had believed, through grace. So the Paul to plant, for Apollos to water, punctuation ought to be. Apol- of this there are specimens, los remained awhile with Paul, chap. v. 11. vi. 1. when he was at Ephesus, but de- 4. The style which he uses, is clined returning to Corinth, round, rhetorical, oratorical. To though Paul wished it. I Cor. Apollos, called norysos, an elegant xvi. 12. He was afterwards with and graceful elocution is ascribed, Titus in Crete, Tit. ii. 13, from Acts xviii, 24, 27. This too is which he went to Italy,and wrote, more applicable to Apollos,than to as Venema supposes, this epistle Paul, whose style is more concise to the Hebrews. At length, it and energetic. It would be furseems, he returned to Alexan- ther an easy task to bring forward dria, Heb. xiii. 19. In this city, words and phrases unusual to if conjecture may be indulged, he Paul? instituted a catechetical school, 5. It appears evident, that the. by others attributed to Mark. author has a particular relation to
Give now a candid considera- the Hebrews, to whom he writes; tion to the arguments, with which so that he not only addressed Venema supports his opinion. them in a letter, but requested If it is correct, we have gained their prayers to God, that he another important point with re- might soon return to them, chap. gard to the history of our canon- xiii. 19. which does not agree ical books.
with the character of Paul, the Besides the presumption, that apostle of the Gentiles, chiedy, Paul would not have with holden not of the Jews. his name, which he did not in 6. It is more than doubtful any of his other epistles ; it has whether Paul would have freely
1. Some weight, that there does conversed in Italy where Timo. not appear a shadow of evidence, thy was imprisoned, which howthat the writer was an apostle, or ever this author asserts, ch. xiii. invested with any dignity or au- 23.
I know it is commonly thority in the church whatsoever; thought, that the writer declares yea, he distinguishes himself himself bound, x. 34. but this is from the leaders, and excuses owing to an incorrect reading, as himself, that he wrote admoni- for desuous pas must be read, diomiois, tions and consolatory letters, ch. which is required by the verb, xiii. 17, '18, 22, which agrees superalsa, to have compassion, with A pollos not being with Paul. comp. ch. xiii. 3.
2. He joins himself to the He- 7. It does not agree with Paul, brews, who did receive the doc. to call such an extensive letter, trine of Christ from other witnes- a short one, xiii. 22, as Paul in a ses, as well as they ; chap. ii. 3. much shorter letter to the Galaand mentions no where any im- tians, 'says, “ see how largely I mediate revelation. The contra- have written with mine own ry way is usual with Paul, Gal. i. hand,” Gal. vi. 11. It suits bet
3. It suits better the character ter the style of an orator to call it of Apollos, than that of Paul, that a short letter. he aims at a more sublime in- 8. The only objection is from struction, as it was natural for 2 Pet. iii. 15, which, if taken
SURVEY OF NEW EXGLAND
away, shall take the place of an argument. Paul is said to have written to the same, as Peter, who wrote to the dispersed
Continued from page 259. Jews.
There is no truth more clearHere cannot be understood ly revealed in scripture, none one, but various letters, as direct- confirmed by more various and ly follows, and not particularly substantial facts, or more certainwritten to the Hebrews or Jews, ly known and felt by Christians, but to believers in general, than the native depravity of man. Greeks as well as Jews, in which The evidence, which scripture letters he, as well Peter, spake furnishes of this truth, is very of the same things, to wit. of clear and multiform.
It is conthe reasons of the delay of the tained in every part of the Bible. last judgment, and God's long Whether we look into the Old suffering, not willing, that men Testament or the New ; whethshould perish, but that all should
er we attend to the rites of the repent, and be saved, Jews as
Mosaic, or the Christian system ; well as Gentiles.
whether we examine the historic, If still any one pretends, that the devotional, the prophetic, the Paul's epistle to the dispersed doctrinal, or the preceptive parts Jews must be here understood, of the sacred volume, we find irnothing hinders in that case in- resistible proof of this sad and deed, from understanding Peter's humbling truth. Without adsaying as referring to St. Paul's mitting it, the scriptures can nerlost epistles ; as it is beyond er be understood according to doubt, that Paul wrote more let- the rules of a just and fair ters, than those actually preserv- construction. Without admited; which is evident from 2 ting it, many parts of the Bible, Thess. iii. 17. as no other now
which the inspired writers maniremains between the second and festly consider, as eminently imthe first.
portant, will be destitute of meanCANDIDUS.
ing and use. In demonstrating
this deplorable truth, the whole Readers are requested to course of events, learned from examine the passages referred to. observation and from history,
conspires with the holy scrip
tures. How plain and certain is The Editors acknowledge the inge. it to every wise observer, that Duity of Venema's defence, and thank mankind, whether considered in a their learned Correspondent for the social or individual state, are pains he has taken to select and com
wholly corrupt, the children of municate the arguments. They must however be allowed to suggest theim
disobedience, transgressors from portance of great caution and longer.
the womb. amination on the part of readers, as In the view of good men, this none of the arguments appear fully truth is attended with the highconclusive, and some of them are ea. est evidence. A thousand argusily exposed. Besides, some of the ideas contained in the defence tend to
ments in confirmation of it are diminish the authority of the Epistle derived from their growing to the Hebrews.
acquaintance with themselves.
Every day's experience adds to their first existence; many contheir conviction, that in them sider it merely as the accidental there is, naturally, no good thing, effect of the temptations, to and that the apostle can be charg- which they are early exposed, or ed with no extravagance of some unpropitious circumharshness, when he describes stances attending their education. the unrenewed heart as enmity Most people imagine, that dewith God. They have no more pravity is very partial, by no doubts of their moral corruption means extending to the whole and vileness, than they have of moral nature, or to all the moral their existence.
actions of man. They consider That the disease of sin is deep- it as their misfortune rather, ly wrought in the very nature of than their sin, exculpating themman, rests upon evidence of the selves, because their state is the same kind with any principle in consequence of Adam's transnatural philosophy. No philo- gression. And some, who advosophic truth is supported by cate the doctrine of total depravmore evident appearances or ity, represent it in a light, which more numerous operations, than is plainly inconsistent with the the doctrine of native depravity. free agency, the moral obligaThe facts of a moral nature, tion and accountability of sinners. which prove this doctrine, may But without enumerating all be rạoked with the facts of a the errors respecting this docphysical nature, which prove the trine, which are entertained and doctrine of gravitation. The defended at the present day ; it fruits of human corruption ap- is my design to guard the pear so early ; they are so vari- churches of Christ against those ouş, şo constant, and so copious, errors, by pointing out the sourthat we can with no more reason ces from which they proceed, and doubt its existence, than the ex- the various hurtful effects which istence of any natural appetite or they produce. passion.
One perpetual source of error But notwithstanding the vari. respecting the character and acous and abundant proofs, upon tions of lapsed man is, the pracwhich this doctrine rests, it is rice of judging by a wrong standoften denied and opposed, At ard. If men would keep their this day there is a general dispo- eye steadily fixed on the moral sition manifested, especially a- xcellence of God, the perfect mong the learned, to change or pattern of all goodness; or would conceal its awful scripture form, duly consider the nature and exand to consider it as of small tent of what his law requires ; consequence, in what manner it they would be convinced of the is believed, or whether it is be- entire moral depravation of man. lieved at all. Instead of the in- In the light of divine holiness spired sentiment, that mankind they would see, that the thought are shapen in iniquity and con- of the imagination of his heart is ceived in sin, or that depravity evil continually and from his affects their moral nature from youth. Judging by the perfect Vol. III. No. 8.