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the remaining parts of the Lord's day in prayer, reading, meditation, and the religious care of his family.

He is diligent in his private pastoral work. Sensible of the worth of souls, he visits his parish from house to house where he has any hopes of doing good by such visits; inquiring into their state, whether they sanctify the sabbath, teach their children, and maintain family prayer. He instructs the ignorant; gives or lends them good books; endeavours, especially in sickness, to make and cherish good impres sions on their hearts; and watch es for their souls, as one who must give an account.

His general temper and be haviour are not only blameless and inoffensive, but have an evident tincture of piety and zeal. He is grave in his apparel and language, self-denying, meek, contented, and charitable to the poor. Religion appears in all his converse; he shuns vain company, and all the places of fashionable amusement; and makes it his governing aim to adorn the doctrine which he preaches, and to shine as a light in the world.

He treats his clerical brethren with respect and kindness. He is peaceable and moderate, loves those of every denomination who are peaceable and pious, and wishes success to their labours. He rejoices that Christ Jesus the Lord is preached and souls are saved, though by men of different sentiments and persuasions from himself.


He enters into holy orders, either from necessity or sloth,

or from ambition and covetous. ness.

He flatters the great and the rich, be they ever so irreligious, in order to get preferment; and courts their patronage by soothing them in their vices, by es pousing their political measures, or by mean compliances that are utterly inconsistent with the dig nity of his office. To shew himself approved unto God, a workman, is no part of his study. Gain is his godliness. He serves not the Lord Christ, but his own belly; and makes it his main care to get as much of this world's goods, and live as much at ease, as he can.

He may also be known by his doctrine.

He dwells much on the digni ty and perfection of human na ture, nor will he allow that all men stand in need of conversion ; and addresses himself to all his hearers, excepting those who are notoriously wicked, as if they were real Christians and heirs of heaven.

He dwells much on the power and will of man, denying, or seldom mentioning the aids of the Holy Spirit. He extols the merit of our own works, and thus leads men to expect salvation as the reward of their own imperfect obedience.

He seldom mentions Christ, or only as a teacher of morality. He recommends virtue from such motives as are found in the writings of Heathen philosophers, nor do his sermons abound in scripture quotations. The faith which he preaches is an assent to the truth of Christianity, without relying on the merits of its blessed Author, and deriving strength from his Holy Spirit.

He dwells on mere external forms and duties, such as coming to church, receiving the sacrament, being decent, honest, and occasionally charitable. But he is very superficial in his views of the evil and danger of sin; he prophesies smooth things, and avoids what would alarm and terrify.

He reduces the standard of religion to the inadequate conceptions of nominal Christians. He says little of inward religion, and those secret affections and exercises of which the divine persons of the glorious Godhead are the immediate objects. Selfdenial, the crucifixion of the flesh, humility, and non-conformity to the world, are seldom urged by him, or at least in such vague and indefinite terms, as neither to give offence nor create uneasiness in the breasts of his hearers.

His chief solicitude, if he have any solicitude at all, is to display his learning, or his eloquence, or to amuse his hearers with something curious and entertaining; but on the most important topics he is either silent, or cold and lifeless; in other words, he does not appear to be in earnest.

The unfaithful minister may also be known by the following marks.

He does as little as he can without laying himself open to censure and punishment. He is short, slight, and superficial, in his public work, careless how it is done, soon weary of it, and glad when it is finished, and spends the rest of the Sunday in vain company and conversation.

He is careless about private inspection and instruction. When he visits the sick, he hurries through the form without any serious warm addresses to their conscience. His conver

sation with his parish savours of the world, and earthly things, and he seeks not them but theirs.

He loves sports and amuse. ments, and is oftener seen in the assemblies of the vain than in the church. His dress too often bespeaks the vanity and levity of his mind. He loves the company of the sensual and gay; or, if his behaviour is regular and decent, there appears little of a devotional, zealous spirit in him, and he spends that time in literary amusement or idleness, which should be employed for the service of his flock. He often censures in public, and sneers in private, at those of his brethren who have more piety and zeal than himself; calls them enthusiasts, however rational they may be, or Methodists, however unconnected they may be with persons of that description, and does what he can to injure their characters, and lessen their esteem and usefulness. [Ch. Obs.


For the Panoplist.


THE vices of mankind have, in all ages, been the principal causes of legislation. The characters of different governments and people appear strongly mark.

ed, and their varying features are easily distinguished in their penal laws. Ignorance, bigotry and superstition are rendered

with a supply of provisions were furnished; also a number of neat cattle, horses, sheep, and swine.

having on board, exclusive of sailors, 212 marines, with 28 wives and 17 children. Convicts 828, viz. males 558, females 270.

visible in lines of blood. Knowl. In May, 1787, the fleet sailed, edge, religion and real refine ment are exhibited in traits of mildness, united with a dignified regard to social order and happiness. Amelioration is evidently the great object of legislators, under this influence, in prescribing correctives or penalties. Cases, the most atrocious, will not divest them of the robe of humanity; and their keenest sensibilities will be exerted in giving sanction to a law, which may put a period to human life.

Various have been the methods devised to correct or prevent the evils committed by the unprincipled and profligate. In Great Britain it has been the practice for many years to sentence convicts to transportation. Her colonies, especially in America, severely felt the baneful effects of such a system. The revolution put a stop to this imposition. It became expedient to seek a different situation, to which persons of this description might be sent. The eastern part of New Holland, called New South Wales, in the Southern Ocean, was fixed on : A country thinly peopled by savages, possessing, however, many natural advantages, and capable of great improvements by industry. Arrangements were accordingly made for executing the design. Wisdom, prudence and caution marked the plan. Civil and military establishments were prominent parts. Medical and clerical characters were not omitted. Implements of husbandry and for other purposes

They arrived in Botany Bay in January, 1788. Governor Philip, not satisfied with the harbour, nor the adjacent lands, sought a better situation. He soon discovered Port Jackson, a capacious and commodious harbour, and the shore affording a more pleasing appearance. He disembarked at Sidney-cove, east long. 159, 19, 30, and south lat. 32, 52, 30.

The most vigorous exertions were made to erect buildings to cover the people and secure the stores. The governor's commission, the act of parliament establishing courts of judicature, and patents authorising persons named, to execute different offices, were read in the hearing of all. So great a number of persons, whose vitiated principles and habits had rendered them outcasts from their native country, required an efficient government in all its branches, to prevent the worst evils incident to their new situation. They had been sentenced to ser vice for different periods, proportioned to their respective crimes. They were assured, not only of freedom, but of the possession of lands and other gratuities, in case their conduct, while under the operation of le gal penalties, should justify such indulgence, at the termination of those periods. Notwithstanding

these motives and prospects, eign supplies continually dimintheir propensities appeared in ished. divers instances unconquerable. The government were soon compelled to inflict new punishments, and in some cases to make them capital.

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It is deeply to be regretted, that they have not been induced, to pay equal attention to their moral and religious interests. Habituated, in general, to vicious courses, they appear uninfluenced by the efforts of successive clergymen. There is too much reason to fear, that those who might aid clerical endeavours, treat them with indifference, if not with contempt. From the patronage of government, the exertions of missionaries, and increased number of settlers, who voluntarily leave their native country with principles and habits friendly to order and virtue, a more favourable aspect is to be hoped.

The following statement, collected from an account of the English colony in New South Wales, by Lieut. Col. Collins, several years judge advocate of the colony, and afterwards Lieut. Governor of Port Philip, will give a succinct view of the progress of the colony.

About 120 ships had arrived at Port Jackson, the former part of 1800.

There were at Sidney and its vicinity,

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In June, 1801, the number of European inhabit

ants in New South Wales was

In Norfolk Island

5547 961


of whom 4193

In May, 1803, the former amounted to 7097; supported themselves without receiving provisions from the gov


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Sermons on Important Subjects. By the late Rev. DAVID TAPPAN, D. D. Hollis Professor of Divinity in the University at Cambridge. To which is prefixed a biographical sketch of the author; and a sermon preached at his funeral by Dr. Holmes. W. Hilliard, and Lincoln & Edmands.

THE interests of religion and the community have rarely sustained so severe a loss, as in the death of Dr. TAPPAN. His abil ities, which were confessedly of a superior order, were ardently devoted to the service of God and his generation. Providence had assigned him a sphere of ac

tion peculiarly congenial with his talents. From his pious labours, much important benefit had already resulted to the university, and the world; and more seemed yet in prospect. But in the full career of exertion and usefulness, he was summoned from this earthly scene.

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