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corrections on the etymology of in poetry.". To prove the last remark terms and in a preface of twenty- to be an error, we need not resort to three pages, too minutely printed, he the Saxon, for every book we read, enables us to judge of his qualifica- and every conversation we hear, de. tions for the undertaking. 5 ltr monstrates the fact. “ The princes of
Since the publication of his former Israel, being twelve men, each one was work Mr. W. has laudably applied for the house of his fathers.” Numb. himself to the study of the Anglo- j. 44. This is the true original imSaxon, which he terms “the mother port of the word; it has no appropritongue of the English.” That our ate reference to two, more than to ten language derives its principal gram- thousand. “Thyder man ne mihte matical inflections, and a great pro- geseglian on anum monthe, gyf man portion of its terms, from the Saxon on nyht wicodel and cele dage hæfde dialeet of the Teutonic language, is amberne wind.”. “Thither a man certain, but it is equally certain, that could not sail in a month, if he should it retains numerous terms of the an- watch at night, and each day should cient British and the Latin tongues, haye a fair wind.”. Alfred's Orosius, which were spoken by our ancestors Ch. I. See also page 61, 63, 79, 219. long before the Saxons, Jutes, or An- Lond. 1773. and Sax, Ch. I. By Gib. gles, ever landed in Britían; and that, son, page 185, 186. The second def. since the conquest by these invad. inition of Johnson is therefore, the oners, it has undergone great variations dy true one ; but not well expressed. in consequence of that by the Nor- *'« Either," says Lowth, is often man French. The English language, used improperly for each; each signitherefore, may be compared to a amfies both taken separately, either propily, rather than to an individual. erly signifies only the one or the other,
The Lloegrian (or Cornish) dialect of taken disjunctively." In pursuance the ancient British tongue, I may be of this false rule, he condemns such considered as its mother, and the passages as this ; . they crucified two Latin, Saxon, and French, as the fa- others with him, on either side one, thers respectively, of her various off- and Jesas in the midst." But the spring. It seem to be from a want sense in which the word is here used of reflection on the composite nature in [is] the true primitive 'one, and of our language, and a want of atten. still used by the best writers" My tion to those sources which historical cell wäl thær on ægthere hand gefeoll." truth assigns to it, that the principal “There was great slaughter on either mistakes of our etymologists have hand.” Sax. Ch. 134. "Thet ægther arisen. While every new author un- Bioparon other hawede.” “What dertakes to correct his predecessors, he either of them might see the other." falls in consequence of this deficiency, p. 133. “Swithe mycet here ægther into fresh mistakes. Another fer- ge land-here ge scip-here of Swathetile occasion of errors, is a supposi- ode.” “A very great army, either tion that the Saxon is not merely the land army, and ship-army from Swe“mother tongue of the English, but den.": That is both. p. 153. So far is that it is the English tongue itself. Lowth's rule from the truth, that Hence modern amenders and improvere either, in our primitive writers, was labour to annihilate that precision, rarely or never used in a disjunctive which our language has acquired sense. In reading considerable vol. from the genius and labour of elegant unes' of the best Saxon writings, I writers during the last two centuries, have not found a single instance. Its and to reduce it to that confusion disjunctive use is modem;, but its which prevailed among our barbarous original sense is still in use, and perconquerors a thousand years ago. fectly proper.
In proof that these remaks are ap- « There full in view, to either host plicable to Mr. Webster, as well as displayed.” Hoole's T asso, 22, 602. to other recent dabblers in etymology, The passages in Scripture, the lanwe adduce the following paragraphs guage of which Lowth condemns, are from the first page of his prefacerea strictly correct.
"Each," says Johnson, “denotes, In defence of these two great 1st, Either of two. 2. Every one of scholars, whose remains it is now the any number. This sense is rare except fashion to insult, we need only to-ap
manual” for those who do not wish to Britain into the interior parts of the isl. examine etymologies. And the pre- and, and introduced the Teutonic lanface is intended rather as an outline guage, before the Romans conquered or sketch of a plan to be hereafter the country. This Teutonic popula. executed, than as a treatise on the tion was never exterminated, either principles of the language. The few by the Romans, Saxons or Danes ; detached etymologies, with some and from those early Belgic settlers, corrections of definitions, are intend. we have received the body of the ed chiefly to show the propriety and English language. The Saxons and even necessity of a thorough revision Angles, who conquered Britain in the of the language. From the limited sisth and seventh centuries, spoke a nature of my design, the Compendi. dialect of the same language with the ous Dictionary must be a concise Belgic inhabitants-they were comwork, and contain only the parts of paratively few in number--they introsuch a work, which are of most gen- duced few females and incorporating eral use.
with the former inhabitants, they I little expected that any man could not have introduced a new lan. would question the propriety of call. guage; though not improbably the ing the Saxon or Anglo Saxon, the language might have suffered some mother tongue of the English." The variations from the Saxons, as well as whole fabric and scheme of the En- from the later invaders, the Danes. glish language," says Dr. Johnson, The Saxons and Angles impressed a is Gothic or Teutonic ;” and of their names, the one upon the lanthat, the Anglo Saxon was a princi- guage, the other upon the country ;* pal dialect. Not only the idioms and but the affinity between the Saxon peculiar structure of the language part of English, and the modern Dutch, are Teutonic, but a larger part of its prove satisfactorily that the English words, than are derived from any oth- is the direct offspring of the Belgic er source. The Reviewers consider. dialect planted in England before the the Lloegrian or Cornish dialect of Roman conquest of the island. This the ancient British tongue, as the is what I call the Anglo-Saxon lanmother ; and the Latin, Saxon and guage, and the parent of modern French as the fathers of modern En. English ; and if this is what the Re. glish. This remark makes it neces- viewers denominate the “ Cornish di. sary for me to explain what I mean alect of the ancient British,” we are by the Saxon language of England, agreed. But the Cornish dialect, as
It is a common opinion (and doubt. it is given in Lhuyd, is a compound less a gross error) that the Jutes, of Celtic or Gaulish, Latin and Teu. Angles and Saxons, who invadied and tonic, with a predominant portion of conquered Britain after the departure Celtic; and I apprehend is not enti. of the Romans, in the 5th century, de. tled to be called the mother of the Engstroyed or drove into the west of lish language. England, the British inhabitants, and The remarks of the Reviewers on introduced their own language, with a the ignorance and want of reflection in now race of people. History an et- etymologists, and the efforts of amend. ymology disprove this opinion. Longers and improvers to annihilate the prebefore the invasion of Julius Cæsar, cision of our language and introduce the southern maritime borders of confusion, indicate a want of that can.. Britain were peopled by Teutonic dour and moderation, which ought to tribes, who migrated from Gaul and characterize criticism, and insult the Belgica. Cæsar calls these people literature of the age. It is more eaBelgx, and informs us that they pos- sy, than civil, for one writer to call sessed Gaul, as far south as the another a dabbler in a particular sub. Siene. Tacitus confirms this ac. count, when he tells us the people in both countries spoke nearly the same Angles signifies dwellers on a plain, language. Sermo haud multum di- from ing; a plain, level country. They
See Cæsar De Bel. Gal. lib. were the Ingevones of Tacitus, De v. 10. Tacit. Life of Agricola. These Mor. Germ. 2. They inhabited the Belgic inhabitants, therefore, had flat country of Friesland, Denmark, driven the original Celtic possessors of &c. La Ouver. Germ. Ant. lib. 3.
ject; and the writer who thus deals Each is deduced by Skinner and in names, should recollect that the Junius, followed by Bailey and Johnquestion, who is, and who is not a son, from the Saxon æle ; and in purdabbler, is to be decided by future suance of this etymology, I have, in generations.
the preface to my Dictionary, cited Without further remark on this and referred to a number of authori. exceptionable part of the review, ! ties to establish the precise meaning will proceed to vindicate my own of the word, as equivalent to every criticistas on the words, each and ei. It is probable that this etymol. ther, which the gentlemen have call. ogy is erroneous; and that each is the ed in question.
Celtic gach ; the guttural being drop. In the preface to my Dictionary, ped. But æle and gach being prepage 1, I have cited authorities from cisely synonymous, it is not of impor. the translation of the scriptures, and tance to the present question, which from Saxon books, to convict John. is the word from which we have de. son of a mistake in the definition of rived each; for both had, in the primeach; and Lowth, of an 'error in itive languages, the sense of every. criticism on the word either. The Junius and Skinner define each, by Reviewers do not deny my authori. unusquisque, which, as translated by ties; but they say, “ What if Saxon Ainsworth, signifies, every, or every writers, and the venerable translators one. Somner, in his Dictionary, deof the Bible, confounded the proper fines ale by omnis, all. Lye, in his meanings of each and every one? Did Dictionary, defines it by omnis, and they bind all their posterity to do the unusquisque ; and cites, [I suppose the same! Is any thing more obvious, Saxon version of the gospels, which than that every one can only be appli. I do not possess] Matthew ii. 10. ed to more than two? while each “Every tree, which bringeth not forth must be used of two, and is there. good fruit." He defines the fore best restricted to that num- word also by singuli, and cites Mat. ber?"
xx. 2. John ii. 6. Luke xxi. 36. These remarks are error and ab. In all which passages, the word re: surdity from beginning to end. fers to more than two, and signifies What, let me ask in reply; did not all, or every one. Lye cites also a Saxon writers and the venerable passage in Psalm cxv. but I think translators of the Bible use words there must be an error in printing. with precision ? Were they ignorant Every authority ! possess, is in my of the true signification of the words favour : not a single exception. I they used ? Did they contound terms? have marked a great number of pas. Surely, these critics should be the sages in Saxon authors to the same last to charge other men with “in- point, and every instance I have found sulting the remains of great schol, justifies the definitiou of the foregoars." No, gentlemen; they did not ing lexicographers. confound terms ; nor have posterity But I believe each to be the Celtic deviated from their practice. The gach, which Lhuyd, in the Irish Dicpractice of ancient and of modern tionary, in his Archæologia, translates writers is uniform and correct. I by every, gach aon, every one ; gach complain not of the practice, but of neach, each; gach uile, all. The same Johnson's definition of each. He definition is given in Shaw's Analysis says that each, in the sense of “eve. of the Galic language, page 57. And ry one of any number,” is rare, except it appears that in the primitive lanin poetry. This is not true. On the guage, this word was used with one, other hand, I affirm, and will prove, gach aon, each one, a use which that the primitive sense of each was is still preserved in English. coery one of any number ;
that one resembled the children of a from the first Saxon writings to this king,”. Judges viii. 18. See also day, it has been used in that sense, Num. i. 44, vii. 3, Isai. ii. 20, vi. 2, in prose, in poetry, and in discourse, lvii. 2. But one is more usually and that it has not, nor ever had any omitted. appropriate applicatiop to two, more Whichever word therefore may be than to two thousand or any other the original of each, the Celtic gace pumber.
or the Saxon ele, the authorities,