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without an exception, prove, that the Surely the gentlemen do not mean a original signification of the word was volume of two sermons only. Page every or every one, applicable to the 26, speaking of Courts Martial in separate individuals of any indefinite general, they say, “The fundamental number. So far the point is estab. laws. by which they are governed, lished beyond the possibility of being their different ķinds, the analogy controverted.
they bear to each other....” If the Modern authorities are equally de. gentlemen are not satisfied with all the cisive of the question. Skinner and authorities cited, supported by their Junius have already been cited. Bai. own, they would not be “persuaded ley, who, as far as his definitions go, though one should rise from the dead.” is more correct than Johnson, defines My remarks on either are equally each by every one, giving it no other well supported by authorities. To signification. The late compilers of
save trouble, the Reviewers are refer. dictionaries, having copied Johnson's red to Lye's Saxon Dictionary, where definitions, are chargeable with the the senses of either are explained and same inaccuracies.
the authorities cited. Lye defines In twenty passages of scripture out the word by uterque and ambo. It of twenty eight, cited in Cruden's was appropriately used for two, equiv, Concordance, in which each is used, alent to each, when used of two only. the word refers to more than two. See the authorities cited. Mat. ix. 17. The translators did not « confound xiii, 30. Gen. xxi. 31. xiii. 11, and terms,” as the Reviewers insinuate ; others in Lye's Dictionary ; to which they used the word in its true sense,
I can add a multitude of passages, either as applicable to two or to any
which I have marked on the margins other number; and so is the word of Saxon books, but the insertion of still used by every man who speaks them would be of no use to readers in English ;
; nor, until Johnson's defini, general. Its disjunctive use was antion appeared, was it ever supposed ciently very rare, but since it is es. that the word had any appropriate ref. tablished by usage, I do not comerence to two. Each soldier in the plain of the change; I contend only army, and each ship in the navy are that the original sense of the word, perfectly good English. Indeed each “ on either side,” for“ on each side,” is is applied to two, only for the same still a legitimate use of the word, reason that it is to any other number, which no man has a right to proviz. because that is the whole number scribe. In poetry, it has a peculiar which is the subject of discourse.
force and beauty; and it is not the There is one other authority in my man, who vindicates such ancient and favour, which, I presume, must be long established usages, who “anni. conclusive with these gentlemen, and
hilates precision and introduces conthis is, their own
use of the word, fusion;" but it is the learned critics, The Reviewers say, “ each must be the Johnsons! and Lowths, who con used of two;" but in the very number demn such usages, without that mi, of the Review in which this criticism nute attention to the history, prog, is found, they apply the word to a ress, and present state of the lan. greater number.
Page 10, “In a guage, which the intricate nature of volume of sermons, each discourse the subject deserves. N. WEBSTER. must have its head and tail piece.”
( To be continued.)
Religious Intelligence. An dccount of the origin and progress of pointment by the Committee of Mis: the Mission to the Cherokee Indians ; sions, to the superintendence of edu, in a series of Letters from the Rev.
cation among the Cherokee Indians, Gideon Blackburn, to the Rev. Dr. In this I shall notice the progress of Morse.
the mission. Upon my return home LETTER II.
in the month of July, I had several Marysville, ( Tenn.) 1807. interviews with the Chiefs of the na. REV. Sir,
tion, and sent letters, or as they call In my last, I had mentioned my ap- them, talks, to their councils, in which
was stated the design and advantages check to their leaving the school, till of such an institution; taking care they become so pleased, that checks not to propose any thing, in the per- were unnecessary. formance of which, I could not ex. With regard to order and discipline, ceed the promise ; as a single failure I presume few schools can exceed would have destroyed my credit and ru. this. Between inducements and strict ined the design. The effect was, that discipline, the children were insensiin October, at the time of the distribu. bly brought to yield entire submission tion of the annuity, a council, consisting to the regulations of the school. of upwards of 2000 Indians, assembled, At each examination a prize was including all the Chiefs of the nation. proposed for the next examination, to Before this council I laid my plan, and be given to the one making the great stated all the points I conceived nec- est progress. This was faithfully give essary to aid me in its execution. en according to promise. And Yest
After spending a day or two in close the others should be depressed and deliberation, I received their appro. discouraged, small presents were giv, bation in writing, with a declaration en to each one according to his mer. that they would send their children its. All this was done, as much as according to my wishes ; at the same possible, under the eye of their par. time they agreed to assist me in fix- ents. As my design was to introduce ing a place for the school. The place Christianity, as the young mind should was chosen near the Highwassee be capable of receiving it, the first river, in a part of the nation most un, principles of religion, as contained in likely to be civilized. A school-house, the shorter Catechism, were early and a house for the teacher were im. taught, together with other short mediately erected. The school-house questions of a similar nature. Many was so constructed that it might serve hymns of praise were committed to the children to eat in, and be comfort. memory from Dr. Watts' Divine able for the lodging of the males, Songs, Rippon's Selection, and other "he females were appointed to sleep compositions. They were taught to in the master's family. I was re- sing plain and melodious tunes with a markably fortunate in the choice of a great deal of ease and sweetness. master; he was a man of prudence, During all these exercises the utmost good sense, and piety ; with a heart care was taken to impress them with fully set on the work.' His family was solemnity, in order to avoid those hab. conveniently small, consisting of a its of levity so often discovered among wife and one child.
ourselves, when acquiring the music All things being now fully prepared, we expect to use in the worship of the school was opened in the spring God. With one of these songs, a of 1804. In the course of the first portion of Scripture, and prayer, the week we had twenty-one children, school was begun and closed each who all gave flattering evidences of day: This acquisition of songs of promising geniuses.
praise was also useful, in assisting to I had conceived it would be one open the minds of the parents to bear of my greatest difficulties to keep the the truths designed to be communichildren at the school. In order to cated to them. While seated round guard against this contemplated evil, in a convenient semi-circle, and the I had agreed with the Chiefs, that if children in the midst, after communi. any of the children should leave the cating a few ideas by an interpreter, school without permission, or if per. (which was one of the children, as soon mitted to go home should stay ten as they were capable of the service) days longer than allowed, without a the children would join in one of those reasonable excuse, they should forfeit
Then more instruc. the clothing I had given them. The tion could be given, and then another Chiefs were bound to send the clothes song, and in this way the mind be kept back, or on their refusal, then, at the open to the truth; and also the profit. distribution of the next annuity, I ing of the children be made to ap. should have a right to deduct the pear to their parents and friends. I amonnt from the dividend of such will not say music can transform, but Chief, to be applied to the use of the sure I am, it has a remarkable tenschool. This proved an effectuaļdency to soften, the savage mind. I
songs of Zion.
have seen it so impressive, that old It is my decided opinion, if the instituwarriors (who are remarkably averse tion should be continued, it will event: in feelings) have sprung on their feet ually, not only be the highest means of in time of a song, clapt their hand on their national civilization, but a saving their breast, and in the Cherokee lan- to the United States, as they must guage exclaimed,
my heart sing very soon become a branch of the I am yours, &c.
SAMUEL Love. P.S. You will be able to form a judg. ment of their progress in literature, and Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. their submission to disipline, by the re- William Carey, dared at Calcutta, port of a committee of the Presbytery Fan. 20, 1807, to the Rev. Dr of Union, and a certificate politely Staughton, of Philadelphia. handed by a respectable attorney and MY DEAR BROTHER, merchant, who had spent some time in By the return of Mr. M'Farlane, I the school, both which I take the liberty take the opportunity of sending a few to enclose.
hasty lines, to inform you of the Jan. 1, 1807.
changes which have taken place since To the Presbytery of Union,
I wrote you last. We your Committee beg leave to
Through a severe affliction brother report, that we attended at and exam.
Biss has been obliged to leave his ined the Highwassee Indian school, station here and return to Europe. I and do highly approve of the progress hope, that the Lord, who knows the the children have made in every wants of all his churches, will eventbranch of literature they have at.
ually overrule this very afflicting tempted : reading, writing, cyphering, providence for the good of his church, spelling off the book, and singing and for the furtherance of the gospel
. spiritual songs. Their progress is
He will probably arrive in America really flattering in those different before this reaches you. If he be branches, and perhaps is not exceed.
still with you, give my, and all our ed in any school amongst ourselves. brethren and sisters' love to him and
They appear to understand the things sister Biss.* they have attempted to learn, as well When captain Wickes was here we as they are generally understood by were directed to plan a mission to the white children. We highly approve Burman empire. I expected to have the method of teaching and the order
been able to say, that our brethren of the school, and the children appear
are gone thither; but the ship is de. to have as just conceptions of order, laved a day or two for a pilot. They and as cheerfully to submit to disci.
came down this evening, thinking to pline, as any children.
go on board to-morrow. I beliere Josh. B. LAPSLEY, they will go the next day. May the
ISAAC ANDERSOY. Lord send prosperity! N. B. The School contains from 45 When captain Wickes was with us to 50 Scholars.
he attended a meeting, which was held
at a place (formerly an idol temple) Marysville, Feb. 25, 1807. belonging to the Rev. Mr. Brown, It is hereby certifier, that on the first chaplain of the presidency, on ac. 3d of January, 1807, I spent some time count of a pious clergyman being dis. in the Highwassee Indian School, missed to his station. In that same established by the Rev. Gideon Black place we this day met, and commend. burn. The number of the scholars was near fifty. Their progress in lit- * Mr. Biss died on his passage to erature, and their advancement in cir. America, about four weeks after his ilization exceed all belief. The mod embarkation from Serampore; leaving esty of their deportment, the ea'e and a widow and four children, who are now decorum of their manners, is not sur. in Philadelphia, and to whom, we doub: passed by any school of white children not, all that attention will be paid, which I have ever seen, nor have I erer wit- their situation requires. It is said, nessed greater docility, or submission that Mrs. Biss contemplates a return to discipline, in the course of my life. to India.
ed our brethren Chater and Mardon very great reductions in the expenses. to God, for the work to which they are In the old state I was teacher of called. Little did the builder of that Bengalee, Sangskrit and Mahratta, edifice think to what purpose it would with a salary of five hundred rupees be appropriated. From thence hare per month. Last week I received a seven ministers of the gospel been dis letter from government acquainting missed to their various stations with me, that I was appointed by the gover. in a few months; and in these servi. nor general in council professor of the ces churchmen, independents and bap- Bengalee and Sangskrit languages, tists, hare united as brethren in the with a salary of one thousand rupees jnost cordial manner: I think with a per month, or one hundred twenty five cordiality unknown in England. Two pounds sterling. Thus the earth baptists, two independents, and three helpeth the woman. This will enable churchmen, have been from thence us to do something more for our sent to their work.
Lord. This day we heard a long letter from a minister, who has lately gone the attention of those in power, by to visit the Christian churches and
promotion, &c. • Knowing, as I do," the Jews in the south. He has found
says Mr. Carey, “the vatives of this much real Christianity among some country, and hearing, as I do, their in those parts, and has just visited a daily observations on our government, number of Syrian Chiristian churches character and principles, I am warrant. hid among the mountains of Mal
ed to say, that the institution of this colabar, which, it is supposed, were lege was wanting to complete the happlanted in the fourth century. These piness of the natives under our dominion; Christians had never seen a printed for this institution will break down that Bible, but have the Syriac Bible in barrier (our ignorance of their lanmanuscript. Some of their manu
guage) which has ever opposed the influe scripts are very ancient. Some of
ence of our laws and principles, and has them did not know that there were despoiled our administration of its enerany other Christians in the world be.
&y and effects. Were the institution to sides themselves and the Roman
cease from this moment, its salutary ef. Catholics at Goa, whom they abhor, fects would yet remain. Good has been having been severely persecuted by done, which cannot be undone. Sources them. Some of the bishops talked of useful knowledge, moral instruction, about the necessity of the religion of and political utility, have been opened the heart, and I should hope the fear to the natives of India, which can never of God is among them.
be closed; and their civil improvement, An order was sent out from the like the gradual civilization of our own court of directors to new model the country, will advance in progression for college of Fort William,* and to make
ages to come." The gospels and New
Testament, translated into several lan. The college of Fort William, in guages of the east, have been printed in Bengal, was instituted in 1800, upon a this college. Literary Panorama. auggestiou by the marquis of Wellesley. It met with great opposition at first, resolved to devote nothing to private use.
+ The missionarier disinterestedly but this was overcome by the cogent redsons urged in favour of the establish
With what remains of their income, af. ment, from which important advantages they form a common fund, which is
ter defraying their necessary expenses, were expected. Suitable instructers are employed in teaching the languages of appropriated to promote the object of
their mission. the country, with others adapted to be
We were well informed, useful in India. Nor is English composi: 18,0001. sterling had then been expended;
in September, 1804, that not less than tion neglected; but, together with the study of oriental dialects, proper atten
whereof only 5,7401. 173. 7d. had been tion is paid to the language of the moth- &e. So that besides devoting themselves Remarks respecting the Christians found been severely persecuted by the
received from England in money, goods, er country, to the sciences, arts, and improvements of Europe. The meritori, tions to its support have been remarka
to the work, their pecuniary contribu. our student is rewarded by a degree of honour, which the college confers ; by
in Malabar, mentioned in the forego. Catholics at Goa.” But it is presu. ing letter.
med, that our informant, who visited The information given in this let
the other churches in Malabar, and ter is very interesting. We cannot who must have known the very obvibut hope that Providence has separat- ous peculiarities of the Nestorians, ed these Christians from the rest of could not have been deceived on this the Christian world, for the purpose point. If no traces of the Nestorian of making them unsuspected deposi. controversy should be found in these taries of important truth; that from churches, this will be an argument of the mountains of Malabar new light their great antiquity, since the Thay arise for the confirmation of Nestorians after the 5th century Christian faith ; that manuscripts filled the countries nearest to India, will be discovered, which will afford and penetrated India itself. additional proof of the uncorrupted
It is hoped that the missionaries in preservation of the Scriptures, and as
India will feel interested in obtaining sist in settling disputed passages of all possible information respecting the sacred text. Among a people so
these Christians. They will natural. long secluded in mountains, sufficient
ly direct their first attention to the traces we hope may be found of an- manuscripts of the Syriac Bible in cient usages and modes of thinking
their possession. It is well known to remove the obscurity in which some
that the Old Syriac holds the highest parts of the New Testament are yet rank among the versions of Scripture. involved. Perhaps not only the sacred
Biblical criticism will receive great writings, but other valuable works of assistance by a discovery of the state antiquity may be found on this retired of this version in the 4th century. spot. We are also anxious to know Perhaps further inquiry will disap. what views these Christians entertain point the hopes we have here ex. of the leading doctrines of the gospel.
pressed. But let it be observed, that But the letter is not particular
we have expressed not our belief, but enough to gratify the curiosity which only our hopes ; and where the heart it excites.
is interested, how natural is it to inWe are not informed of the evi. dulge in hope ! dence on which it is supposed, that these churches were planted in Mala- GENERAL ASSOCIATION. bar in the 4th century. It is probable that they have some traditions re- Had we not already expressed our senspecting their origin ; and their reli- timents at large on the subject of gious customs may help to fix the time the following paper, we should have when they were separated from the had much to say on this occasion. great body of Eastern Christians. It It is with peculiar pleasure we obis well known that in the beginning of serve, that the reasons in favour of the 4th century,
Christians were a GenERAL ASSOCIATION in this cruelly persecuted in the Eastern Commonwealth have received so part of the Roman empire, under much attention, and, are more and Diocletian and Galerius. This event more satisfactory to those who canmay have driven these churches into didly examine them. Late events the interior of India.
strengthen the hope, that the assoWe learn from ecclesiastical histo. ciation will become general, and rians, that the Nestorians, a numerous that the important ends, contemsect of Christians, which arose in the plated by the friends of Zion, will 5th century, and which in two cen. be accomplished. Several Associ. turies overspread the countries of the ations, not represented at the late East, introduced Christianity very meeting at Windsor, are well known early into India ; and to this day, many to be friendly to the plan, and will Nestorians, or, as they are commonly doubtless act in its favour before called, Christians of St. Thomas, are the next meeting ; which, being ap. found in Malabar. It may be suppos- pointed in such a central place, will, ed by some, that the churches mention. we trust, comprise a much larger ed in the pletter are of this sect, number of associations, than any especially as the Nestorians “have previous meeting. The objects of