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Disarmament Conference in counection with the question of effectives. The Technical Committee gave the following definition of pre-military training :

"Pre-military training shall be deemed to mean all kinds of training involving military instruction given in any form whatsoever (voluntary or compulsory) to young men aged 18 years at least, prior to their possible incorporation in the armed forces."

The Technical Committee defined military training elsewhere than in the army as being training having the following principal characteristics :

“(1) Technical and tactical training in the use of individual and collective arms used in war;

(2) Training for field service in varied terrain.

In addition, individual cases will have to be examined, taking into account especially the following criteria :

(1) Training of cadres in indoor (on the map) and outdoor exercises ;

(2) Use of military means of liaison and signalling." Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 104. The Draft Convention adopted in the first reading by the General Commission of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference (Conf. D, 163 (1) Geneva, Sept. 22nd, 1933. Series of League of Nations Publications IX. Disarmament, 1935, IX/4, pp. 600 ff. (hereafter referred to as Draft Convention]), contained in Part II, Disarmament, Section 1, Effectives, the following provision: “Article 9. It is understood that effectives consist of: (a) all officers, officer cadets, N. C. 0.8, soldiers, sailors, airmen, reservists and all other persons (such as military officials of the administrative, sanitary or veterinary services or military agents) of equivalent status who perform a day's duty in the land, sea and air armed forces; (b) Persons who perform a day's duty in police forces or similar formations under the conditions prescribed in Article 12; (c) All other persons of at least 18 years of age who receive military training under the control of the State. Military training is taken to mean any training given to persons of at least 18 years of age under the military regulations in force in each country or under regulations containing similar provisions, with a view to preparing those who receive it for performing military duty in the armed forces. The main characteristics of this training are as follows: (1) Technical and tactical training in the use of individual and other than individual arms used in war; (2) training in field service over broken ground. Furthermore, in the examination of special cases, account will be taken, in particular, of the following criteria: (1) theoretical (by map) and field training of cadres; (2) use of military methods of communication and signalling. Physical and sports training in the strict sense of the term, for whatever purpose given, shall not be regarded as military training.” As to Article 12, cf. p. 200 and note 20.

19. According to a proposal made on 20 June 1932 by President Hoover to the General Commission of the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 88.

20. According to the Draft Convention, Part II, Section I, Article 12. Article 13 ran as follows: “The following naval effectives should be included among effectives of the land armed forces: (a) Effectives employed in land coast defense; (b) Marines who are normally in excess of those assigned to, or destined for, service afloat; (c) Effectives coming within the classification of similar formations (as defined in Article 12). Naval personnel serving ashore in the fleet services (training, administrative, etc.), as well as those assigned to, or destined for, service afloat, will be included in the effectives of the sea armed forces."

21. On 12 August 1948, the Commission for Conventional Armament resolved to advise the Security Council "1. that it considers that all armaments and armed forces, except atomic weapons and weapons of mass destruction, fall within its jurisdiction and that weapons of mass destruction should be defined to include atomic explosive weapons, radio-active material weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any weapons developed in the future which have characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. 2. that it proposes to proceed with its work on the basis of the above definition." Doc. S/C.3/32/Rev. 1. 18 August 1948.

22. This definition was formulated by the representatives of France in Committee 1 of the United Nations Disarmament Commission on 4 April 1952. United Nations Disarmament Commision. Official Records. Special Supplement No. 1. Second Report of the Disarmament Commission (hereafter referred to as Second Report of the United Nations Disarmament Commission), pp. 49–50.

23. Treaties on limitation of naval armaments are: the Treaty signed by the United States of America, Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan at Washington on 6 February 1922; the Treaty signed by the same Parties at London on 22 April 1930; the Treaty signed by the United States of America, France and Great Britain at London on 25 March 1936; the Agreement concerning Limitation of Naval Armament and the Exchange of Information concerning Naval Construction between Great Britain and Germany, London, 17 July 1937; and the Agreement signed at the same date between Great Britain and the Soviet Union.

24. Cf. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 68.
25. Cf. Boggs, op. cit., passim and p. 99.
26. Second Report of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, p. 50.
27. Ibid., pp. 50, 59.

28. Boggs, op. cit., pp. 13 f.: "When quantitative disarmament is applied, the absolute magnitude of the various categories of the armed forces is fixed at certain levels, all forces in excess of that limit being disbanded or destroyed, and their reestablishment prohibited. This involves at the outset definition of an armament ratio, or determination of the relative quantities of armaments permitted to various states after the entry into force of a disarmament convention.” The qualitative principle “involves the abolition or reduction, or alternatively, the internationalization in a world police force, of those classes of weapons and forms of military organization deemed 'aggressive,' or 'offensive,' or of greater utility to the attack than to the defense."

29. Cf. pp. 206 f.

30. In its report to the Assembly of the League of Nations on 7 September 1922 the Temporary Mixed Commission established by the Council on 25 February 1921 laid down the principle that limitation of armaments must be based on peacetime strength. Cf. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 16.

31. Principles at the basis of the French Draft Convention submitted to the Preparatory Commission on 23 March 1927. Cf. Doc. A/AC.50/2, pp. 49–50; Cf. also loc. cit., p. 39.

32. The first concrete proposal for disarmament considered by the Temporary Mixed Commission and submitted by Lord Esher (United Kingdom) suggested a definite scale of reduction of peace effectives to be adopted by the various governments of Europe and was based on a fixed ratio of standing military and air forces. It did not refer to sea armament. Of. Madariaga, op. cit., p. 89, and Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 16.

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33. At the fourth session of the Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference (established on 12 December 1925 by the Council of the League of Nations) which opened on 30 November 1927 the delegation of the U.S.S.R. proposed measures for the complete and immediate abolition of all land, naval and air forces along the following lines: “(a) The dissolution of all land, sea and air forces and the non-admittance of their existence in any concealed form whatsoever; (b) The destruction of all weapons, military supplies, means for chemical warfare and all other forms of armament and means of destruction in the possession of troops or in military or general stores; (c) The scrapping of all warships and military air vessels; (d) The discontinuance of calling up citizens for military training either in armies or public bodies; (e) Legislation for the abolition of military service, either compulsory, voluntary or recruited; (f) Legislation prohibiting the calling-up of trained reserves; (g) The destruction of fortresses and naval and air bases; (h) The scrapping of military plans and factories and of war industry equipment in general industrial works; (i) The discontinuance of assigning funds for military purposes both on State budgets and those of public bodies; (k) The abolition of military, naval and air ministeries, and the dissolution of general staffs and military administrations, departments and institutions of every kind; (1) The legislative prohibition of military propaganda and military training of the population and of military education both in State and public bodies; (m) The legislative prohibition of the patenting of all kinds of armaments and means of destruction with a view to the removal of incentives to the invention of the same; (n) Legislation making the infringement of any of the above stipulations a grave crime against the State; (0) The withdrawal or corresponding alteration of all legislative acts, both of national or international scope, infringing the above stipulations.” Doc. A/AC.50/2, pp. 51–2.

34. The President of the League of Nations Preparatory Commission, opening the general discussion of the problem of disarmament on 21 March 1927 declared that the Commission's task was to consider reduction of armaments and not "disarmament” which has a false ring, as in the present state of affairs it must be regarded as difficult of achievement. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 47.

35. Second Report of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, p. 50.

36. Resolution 1 (I) of the General Assembly concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission, adopted on 24 January 1946, provided : "The Commission shall proceed with the utmost despatch and enquire into all phases of the problem, and make such recommendations from time to time with respect to them as it finds possible. In particular, the Commission shall make specific proposals: (a) for extending between all nations the exchange of basic scientific information for peaceful ends; (b) for control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes; (c) for the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction; (d) for effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violations and evasions.—The work of the Commission should proceed by separate stages, the successful completion of each of which will develop the necessary confidence of the world before the next stage is undertaken.” And in Resolution 808 (IX), adopted on 4 November 1954, the General Assembly, “Reaffirming the responsibility of the United Nations for seeking a solution of the disarmament problem .. 1. Concludes that a further effort should be made to reach agreement on comprehensive and coordinated proposals to be embodied in a draft international disarmament convention providing for: (a) The regulation, limitation and major reduction

of all armed forces and all conventional armaments; (b) The total prohibition of the use and manufacture of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction of every type, together with the conversion of existing stocks of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes; (c) The establishment of effective international control, through a control organ with rights, powers and functions adequate to guarantee the effective observance of the agreed reductions of all armaments and armed forces and the prohibition of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, and to ensure the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only;—The whole programme to be such that no State would have cause to fear that its security was endangered ..."

37. The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare signed at Geneva 17 June 1925 contains the following provisions : “Whereas the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices, has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world ;and whereas the prohibition of such use has been declared in Treaties to which the majority of Powers of the world are Parties; and to the end that this prohibition shall be universally accepted as a part of International Law, binding alike the conscience and the practice of nations; [the signatories] declare: That the High Contracting Parties, so far as they are not already Parties to Treaties prohibiting such use, accept this prohibition, agree to extend this prohibition to the use of bacteriological methods of warfare and agree to be bound as between themselves according to the terms of this declaration.—The High Contracting Parties will exert every effort to induce other States to accede to the present Protocol. Such accession will be notified to the Government of the French Republic, and by the latter to all signatory and acceding Powers, and will take effect on the date of the notification by the Government of the French Republic.".

The League of Nations Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference adopted on 23 April 1929 the following text to be included in a draft convention on disarmament: "The High Contracting Parties undertake, subject to reciprocity, to abstain from the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or similar gases and of all analogous liquids, substances or processes. They undertake unreservedly to abstain from the use of all bacteriological methods of warfare." Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 57.

The Draft Convention contained in Part IV.—Chemical Warfare, among others, the following provisions : "Article 47. The following provision is accepted as an established rule of International Law: The use of chemical, incendiary or bacterial weapons as against any State, whether or not a party to the present Convention, and in any war, whatever its character, is prohibited. This provision does not, however, deprive any party which has been the victim of the illegal use of chemical or incendiary weapons of the right to retaliate, subject to such conditions as may hereafter be agreed.” “Article 51. All preparations for chemical, incendiary or bacterial warfare shall be prohibited in time of peace as in time of war.'

A United States Working Paper (DC/15) setting forth a summary of proposals made by the United States representative in the United Nations Disarmament Commission on 15 August 1952 contains the following passage: "It is proposed that appropriate stages in an effective system of disclosure and verification agreed measures should become effective providing for the progressive curtailment of production, the progressive dismantling of plants, and the progressive destruction of stockpiles of bacterial weapons and related appliances. Under this programme, with co-operation in good faith by the principal States concerned, all

bacterial weapons and all facilities and appliances connected therewith should be completely eliminated from national armaments and their use prohibited.” Second Report of the Disarmament Commission, pp. 154–5.

38. On 22 February 1932 the United Kingdom submitted to the League of Nations Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments the prohibition and abolition of submarines as a humanitarian measure. Doc. A/AC.50/2,

p. 83.

39. On 22 June 1932 the United States delegation proposed the abolition of all tanks, of chemical warfare and of large mobile guns to the Conference. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 88.

40. The United Kingdom draft convention submitted to the League of Nations Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments provided for the complete abolition of bombing from the air except for police purposes in certain outlying regions. It was recognized that a complete abolition of military and naval aircraft must depend on an effective supervision of civil aviation. Doc. A/AC.50/2, p. 106.

41. Cf. pp. 205 f.

42. On 24 April 1952 the representative of the United States submitted to the United Nations Disarmament Commission proposals entitled “Essential Principles for a disarmament programme" (DC/C.1/1). Point 3, referring to the goal of disarmament, reads as follows: "To reach and keep this goal, international agreements must be entered into by which all States would reduce their armed forces to levels, and restrict their armaments to types and quantities, necessary for (a) The maintenance of internal security, (b) Fulfilment of obligations of States to maintain peace and security in accordance with the United Nations Charter.” Second Report of the Disarmament Commission, p. 63. cf. note 46.

During the debate on the program of work in committee 1 of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, the representative of France declared the forces strictly necessary to a state within the framework of a collective security system may be determined as follows: “(a) police forces required for the security of metropolitan territory; (b) forces required for the security of geographically separated dependent territories; (c) reserves for the foregoing forces, and (d) forces to be placed at the disposal of the United Nations.” Second Report of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, p. 51.

43. The Report on International Sanctions contains, on p. 125, the following statements: "Many believers in the idea of an international police have been led to concentrate on the air arm by a knowledge of the tremendous advance that has been made in the technique of aviation since this weapon was first employed for military purposes in the Great War. The greatest preoccupation in the minds of governments and peoples to-day is fear of an attack from the air—an attack which can be launched at almost a moment's notice, which can strike immediately at the heart of a nation, and against which many military experts and responsible statesmen have declared there can be no sure defence. It is felt that the danger of such an attack can be removed only by the abolition of national air forces, but that nations cannot be expected to renounce the use of the air weapon unless they are assured of the support of an international air force in case of unprovoked aggression on their territory."

44. On 24 March 1928 the Preparatory Commission for the League of Nations Disarmament Conference adopted the following resolution : "The Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference: Having examined the bases of the Draft Convention for Immediate, Complete and General Disarmament sub

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