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criteria including demographic, geographic, economic and political factors, and providing that the first phase levels of the armed forces of these States shall not exceed 500,000 men unless special circumstances require an agreed exception, and except that the first stage level of the armed forces of China shall not exceed 2,500,000 men. (b) Each State will be required to take appropriate corresponding obligations for inspection, control, limitation, and reporting in all respects similar to the obligations taken by the members of the praparatory armaments regulation commission. 10. An armaments regulation organization will be established, with an armaments regulation council including all signatories, an executive committee consisting of permanent and non-permanent elected members, and a director-general. All decisions of the executive committee will be taken by a unanimous vote of the permanent members plus a majority vote of the non-permanent members. (a) Upon the establishment of the armaments regulation organization the preparatory armaments regulation commission will transfer all of its functions and activities to the appropriate bodies of the armaments regulation organization and will cease to exist. 11. All signatory States will report to the director-general in the affirmative or negative on the following four points: (a) The possession of fissionable materials; (b) The production of fissionable materials; (c) The possession of nuclear weapons; and (d) The planning of tests of nuclear weapons. 12 The control and inspection system will be expanded so that it becomes capable of accounting for future production of fissionable materials and of monitoring the future testing of nuclear weapons. 13. Upon the report of the director-general that the system is prepared to verify the reductions in levels of armaments, armed forces, and military expenditures, and is prepared to provide against surprise attack; and upon the acceptance of the report of the director-general by the executive committee; and upon the adherence to the treaty of the States considered by the executive committee as essential for a sound system; the first phase reductions will be carried out in all signatory States in accordance with an agreed and parallel time schedule. (a) The destruction of existing armaments required by each State to reduce to the agreed first phase levels will be done under the supervision of the inspectors of the armaments regulation organization, and the salvage material will be used for peaceful national purposes. 14. Appropriations by States for armaments and armed forces will be reduced correspondingly to reflect in an agreed manner the first phase reductions, and the funds available through this reduction shall be used both to improve the well-being of the peoples of these States and to furnish assistance particularly to the economically less-developed countries. 15. Upon the report of the director-general that the inspection and control system is prepared to account for future production of fissionable materials, and upon the acceptance of this report by the executive committee, all signatory States agree that future production of fissionable materials will not be used for the manufacture of explosive weapons. 16. All signatory States possessing nuclear weapons will begin to make agreed regular reciprocal and equitable transfers from past production of fissionable materials over to the use of such transferred material for exclusively peaceful purposes, thereby progressively reducing the amount of fissionable materials available for nuclear weapons purposes. 17. The testing of nuclear weapons will be limited and monitored in an agreed manner under the control of the armaments regulation council. 18. Upon a report of the inspector-general that the first phase of the disarmament programme has been successfully completed, and upon the acceptance of this report by the executive committee, the executive committee will call a plenary session of the armaments regulation council. The council will appraise the

status of world tensions, review the situation affecting major issues between the States, consider the feasibility of further reductions of armaments, armed forces, and military expenditures, study the possibilities for further decreasing or eliminating the nuclear threat, and make recommendations to the executive committee for further phases in a comprehensive disarmament programme. 19. The executive committee will take account of the recommendations of the armaments regulation council, consider scientific, military, economic, and political factors, and decide upon further phases of a comprehensive disarmament programme, which will best serve the objective of a just and durable peace, for recommendation to the signatory States.” Third Report of the Sub-committee of the Disarmament Commission, Annex 6.

70. The Baruch Plan contained the following statement: "There must be no veto to protect those who violate their solemn agreements not develop or use atomic energy for destructive purposes." The International Control of Atomic Energy, p. 142. The Recommendations of Part III of the first Report of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, approved by the Resolution 191 (III) adopted on 4 November 1948 of the General Assembly, contains the following passage: The treaty concerning control of atomic energy "shall provide that the rule of unanimity of the permanent members, which in certain circumstances exists in the Security Council, shall have no relation to the work of the international control agency. No Government shall possess any right of 'veto' over the fulfilment by the international control agency of the obligations imposed upon it by the treaty nor shall any government have the power, through the exercise of any right of 'veto' or otherwise, to obstruct the course of control or inspection.”

71. Georg Cohn, in a memorandum submitted to the International Studies Conference on Collective Security (Collective Security, pp. 287 ff.), wrote: "It may be that the tendency to war and to murder are innate in mankind. In that case, considering the frightful consequences entailed in the carrying out of this tendency, a much more energetic action should be undertaken with a view to suppressing it and rooting it out from childhood. But it is also possible that we have here an unhealthy perversion of tendencies which are in themselves healthy and useful, and that it may therefore be possible to combat the madness of war also by medical means. Aside from this pedagogical and medical struggle against the war spirit, it is possible, finally, to consider combating it by means of repressive measures of an international character against incitement to war, either by parallel national legislation in the different countries, or by the establishment of penal dispositions of an international order against States which do not repress with sufficient effectiveness the incitement to war on their own territory."

72. Most of the measures mentioned above were suggested in a Memorandum submitted by the Polish Government to the Disarmament Conference of the League of Nations on 17 September 1931 (Series of League of Nations Publications IX. Disarmament 1931. IX, 19, pp. 1 f.) and Proposals of the Polish Delegation with regard to the gradual attainment of Moral Disarmament (Series of League of Nations Publications IX. Disarmament 1932. IX, 18, pp. 1 f.)

The Political Commission of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference appointed on 15 March 1932 a special committee of 22 members selected for their personal qualifications to study the question of moral disarmament. This committee adopted on 17 November 1933 the following Draft of a Convention on Moral Disarmament:

"The High Contracting Parties, considering that moral disarmament is one of the essential aspects of the general work of disarmament; considering that the reduction and limitation of armaments depend to a large extent upon the increase of mutual confidence between nations; considering that, as far as public opinion is concerned, a sustained and systematic effort to ease tension may contribute to the progressive realization of material disarmament; considering that the interdependence of States calls, not only for their cooperation in the political sphere, but also for an effort of mutual understanding between the peoples themselves; being resolved to do whatever lies in their power to induce their nationals to display in any public discussion a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect; being convinced that the success of the measures adopted in one country to ensure moral disarmament is largely dependent on the application of similar measures in other countries; recognizing that the League of Nations has placed at the disposal of the various States the Intellectual Cooperation Organization, which is particularly suited to the accomplishment of certain tasks connected with moral disarmament, although a different procedure may have to be adopted to meet special situations:

ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to use their powers or their influence to see that education at every stage, including the training of teachers, is so conceived as to inspire mutual respect between peoples and to emphasize their interdependence, which makes international collaboration a necessity.

ARTICLE 2. The High Contracting Parties will also do whatever lies in their power to see that teachers are guided by these principles. School text-books should be prepared in the same spirit; those which are at variance with that spirit should be revised. The High Contracting Parties likewise agree to recommend to their competent authorities the inclusion of the following subjects in the syllabus prescribed for entrance examinations to official posts which entail relations with other countries : fundamental principles of international law, legal bases of international relations, and outlines of the efforts made to consolidate peace between nations. They undertake to recommend to their competent authorities that their country's history is taught in relation to the history of other countries.

ARTICLE 3. The High Contracting Parties undertake to encourage, in accordance with the special system in force in their respective countries, the use of the cinematograph and broadcasting with a view to increasing the spirit of good-will between nations. With this end in view, they will also support any action taken by the Intellectual Cooperation Organization, as well as by organizations having the same object. In accordance with the special system in force in their respective countries, they will use their influence to avoid the showing of films, the broadcasting of programmes and the organization of performances obviously calculated to wound the legitimate sentiments of other nations.

ARTICLE 4. The High Contracting Parties will endeavor to facilitate, by the most appropriate means, the cooperation in the work of moral disarmament of government departments, intellectual circles and others working for peace on a larger scale. With this end in view, they agree to encourage the creation and activities of national committees for intellectual cooperation or other organizations collaborating in the work of moral disarmament.(Series of League of Nations Publications IX. Disarmament 1936. IX, 4, pp. 925 f.)

At its meeting on 25 June 1932 the Committee for Moral Disarmament decided to set up a Legal Committee. This Committee drew up a questionnaire on the

various points to which its attention had particularly been directed and attached to this questionnaire the draft of some articles, which ran as follows:

ARTICLE 1. (First Alternative) : "The High Contracting Parties agree to consider, within the limits of the possibilities afforded by their public law, the adoption of constitutional rules formally embodying the obligation to refrain from recourse to force as an instrument of national policy and not to attempt the solution of any difference or dispute by other than pacific means. The High Contracting Parties who are Members of the League of Nations assume the same obligation in respect of the stipulations of the Covenant of the League of Nations." (Second Alternative): "The High Contracting Parties undertake to recognize as fundamental laws the stipulation of the Pact of Paris, the Covenant of the League of Nations (in the case of Members of the League of Nations) and of such articles as may subsequently be specified of the General Convention for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments. Each party further undertakes to ensure that none of its laws, regulations or other provisions shall conflict or be at variance with the stipulations of the aforesaid international agreements. ..

ARTICLE 2. The High Contracting Parties undertake to adopt legislative measures empowering them to penalize : 1. The preparation and carrying-out in their respective territories of acts directed against the security of a foreign power. 2. (First Alternative): Direct public propaganda urging the State to be the first to commit, contrary to its international undertakings, any of the following acts : (a) declaration of war upon another state; (b) invasion by its armed forces, even without declaration of war, of the territory of another State; (c) attack by its land, naval or air forces, even without declaration of war, upon the territory, vessels or aircraft of another State; (d) naval blockade of the coasts or ports of another State; (e) assistance given to armed bands, organized in its territory, which have invaded the territory of another State, or refusal, in spite of the request of the invaded State, to take in its own territory all possible steps to deprive the aforesaid bands of all assistance or protection. (Second Alternative) : Direct public propaganda urging the State to commit any one of the acts of aggression enumerated in Article ... of the present Convention relative to the definition of the aggressor. (Third Alternative) : Inciting public opinion by direct public propaganda with a view to forcing the State to embark upon a war of aggression. 3. Participation in or support of armed bands, organized in the territory of the State, which have invaded the territory of another State. 4. The dissemination of false news, reports or of documents forged, falsified or inaccurately attributed to third parties, whenever such dissemination has a disturbing effect upon international relations and is carried out in bad faith. 5. Causing prejudice to a foreign State by maliciously attributing to its acts which are manifestly untrue and thus exposing it to public resentment or contempt. 6. Acts contrary to the prohibitions laid down in Articles of the Convention. (This text should be completed by provisions dealing more especially with the case of persons who, contrary to the undertakings given by the State, have been guilty of the private manufacture of or trade in arms or implements of war and also of preparations, contrary to the provisions of the Convention, for chemical, incendiary or bacterial warfare, etc.).

Article 3. The High Contracting Parties further undertake: (1) to prevent the activities of organizations committing any of the acts enumerated in Article 2 and to treat them as organizations pursuing illegal aims under the municipal laws of the country; (2) to incorporate in their laws the necessary provisions to permit of their giving effect to any provisions which may be embodied in the Convention on the subject of immunities (the reference here is to the pro


visions of the Convention which may be elaborated in consequence of the French delegation's proposals).” Series of League of Nations Publications IX. Disarmament 1935. IX, 4, pp. 701 ff.

The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted at its 108th plenary meeting on 3 November 1947 a Resolution 110 (II) concerning measures to be taken against propaganda and the inciters of a new war which runs as follows:

Whereas in the Charter of the United Nations the peoples express their determination to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and

Whereas the Charter also calls for the promotion of universal respect for, and observance of, fundamental freedoms which include freedom of expression, all Members having pledged themselves in Article 56 to take joint and separate action for such observance of fundamental freedoms,

The General Assembly

1. Condemns all forms of propaganda, in whatsoever country conducted, which is either designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression ;

2. Requests the Government of each Member to take appropriate steps within its constitutional limits :

(a) To promote, by all means of publicity and propaganda available to them, friendly relations among nations based upon the Purposes and Principles of the Charter;

(1)) To encourage the dissemination of all information designed to give ex. pression to the undoubted desire of all peoples for peace;

3. Directs that this resolution be communicated for the forthcoming Conference on I'reedom of Information."

The Resolution 176 (II) adopted by the General Assembly at its 123rd plenary meeting on 21 November 1947 contains the following statement: "The General Assembly Resolves to request the Governments of the Member states:

1. To take appropriate measures to extend the teaching of international law in all its phases, including its development and codification, in the universities and higher educational institutions of each country that are under government control or over which Governments have some influence, or to initiate such teaching where it is not yet provided;

2. To promote similar teaching regarding the aims, purposes, structure and operation of the United Nations in conjunction with paragraph 1 above and in accordance with Resolution 137 (II) adopted by the General Assembly on 17 November 1947, on the teaching of the purposes and principles, the structure and activities of the United Nations in the schools of Member States."

A Resolution, 290 (IV), concerning essentials of peace, adopted by the General Assembly at its 261st plenary meeting on 1 December 1949 contains the statement: “The General Assembly calls upon every nation. ...8. To remove the barriers which deny to peoples the free exchange of information and ideas essential to international understanding and peace.”

On 17 November 1950 the General Assembly adopted at its 308th plenary meeting Resolution 381 (V) concerning the condemnation of propaganda against peace, which runs as follows: "The General Assembly,

1. Reaffirms its resolutions 110 (II) and 290 (IV), paragraph 8, which condemn all propaganda against peace and recommends the free exchange of infor

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