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mation and ideas as one of the foundations of good-neighbourly relations between the peoples; 2. Declares that such propaganda includes:

(1) Incitement to conflicts or acts of aggression ;

(2) Measures tending to isolate the peoples from any contact with the outside world, by preventing the Press, radio and other media of communication from reporting international events, and thus hindering mutual comprehension and understanding between peoples ;

(3) Measures tending to silence or distort the activities of the United Nations in favour of peace or to prevent their peoples from knowing the views of other States Members."

In this connection also the International Convention concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace, 23 September 1936, and the Resolution of the General Assembly 424 (V) of 14 December 1950, are to be mentioned. Cf. supra, p. 89, note 8.

(ee) Economic cooperation.

If war is caused not only by political but also by economic circumstances, a universal or quasi-universal international security organization must have institutions to bring about, as far as possible, satisfactory economic conditions throughout the world, and thus its constituent treaty must provide for so-called economic cooperation." The main question of the exact nature of the relationship between economic circumstances and war is highly disputed. It is a specific Marxian theory that the occurrence of war is exclusively, or at least predominantly, due to economic causes, especially to the capitalistic system. This view is rejected by an outstanding English economist, Lionel Robbins, who tries to show that, although it would be an exaggeration to say that wars have no economic causes or to deny that conflicts of national economic interests may lead to war, these conflicts are not the root cause. “The ultimate condition giving rise to those clashes of national economic interest which lead to international war is the existence of independent national sovereignties. Not capitalism, but the anarchic political organization of the world is the root disease of our civilization.”la He says further: “We know today that unless we destroy the sovereign state, the sovereign state will destroy us.”2 Hence, according to Robbins, the main purpose of an international security organization is to restrict national sovereignty by imposing upon its members definite obligations, the fulfillment of which is guaranteed by effective sanctions. However, another and no less outstanding writer, Edward H. Carr, advocates the opinion that international security is only a by-product of a definite social organization. “International peace . . . cannot be achieved by the signing of pacts or covenants ‘outlawing' war any more than revolutions are prevented by making them illegal. A generation which makes peace and security its aim is doomed to frustra

tion. ... If the victors in the present war [the second World War] are able to create the conditions for an orderly and progressive development of human society, peace and security will be added unto them.”3 Further, he suggests that this "orderly and progressive development of human society” may be brought about by a “new democracy” which differs from “liberal” democracy by the fact that the ideals of equality and liberty are "re-interpreted in predominantly economic terms,” 4 by restricting the self-determination of the states, which are to be placed within a more or less universal international organization, and, last but not least, by abandoning the laissez-faire policy of economic liberalism and adopting a policy of planned economy, that is to say, by socialism.

However that may be, it is now an almost generally accepted opinion that economic cooperation is an important preventive measure which may be applied by an international security organization.?

That economic cooperation is a purpose of an international security organization means that this organization should bring about, as far as possible, a coordination of the economic policies of its members. The activities of different subjects can be coordinated only with a view to a definite goal. Economic cooperation of the members of an international security organization is achieved if the governments of these states adapt their activity to a certain pattern of economic policy which is characterized by its end as well as by the means to be applied with a view to realizing the end. There is no difficulty in answering the question as to the end of economic cooperation. It is a satisfactory economic situation of the states, an adequate status of world economy. The usual formulas by which this goal is described are: "economic health of every country, ,998 "economic prosperity” (the opposite of economic depression), “social security," 9 "economic stability and well being," "high standard of living," 10 "economic advancement," 11 "economic progress," "full employment,"

" 12 and the like. All these formulas are meaningless unless the specific means are indicated by which these ideals may be realized. There is, in general, agreement concerning the ultimate ends of social life: the greatest possible happiness of the greatest possible number of individuals. The real problem, and the main cause of conflict of opinion, is not the end but the means by which the generally accepted end is to be realized. There are two fundamentally different and directly opposite views concerning the appropriate method of bringing about satisfactory economic conditions: economic liberalism, postulating private property in the means of production and complete freedom of economic life, and rejecting any governmental intervention; and economic socialism, postulating the nationalization of the means of production, and the authoritative

regulation of economic life, especially in the organization of economic production and in the distribution of products.13 If there is no agreement with respect to the specific methods determining the economic pattern to which the members of an international security organization are to adapt their policy-and there is evidently not only no agreement but the most passionate antagonism in this respect—there is not very much left to the activity of an international security organization in the field of economic cooperation. Even apart from this fundamental antagonism, economic cooperation is hampered by the conflict of interests between states which are forced to secure their national economy by protective tariffs and those the economy of which requires a free trade. The most serious limitation of economic cooperation results from the principle that the international organization must not intervene in matters which are within the domestic jurisdiction of its members; and economic matters are usually considered to be within the domestic jurisdiction of the states.14

In view of these circumstances, it is not astonishing that the only effective way of achieving economic cooperation within an international security organization: the establishment of a special organ competent to impose by its decisions definite obligations upon the member states with respect to their economic policy, is practically out of the question. The organ or organs concerned may be endowed only with the power of discussing the problems involved, of giving advice, of making recommendations, of collecting and disseminating useful information.15 Positive results may be—and actually have been-achieved on a more or less voluntary basis, especially through agencies established by special conventions, in the fields of relief and reconstruction, 16 international lending and monetary regulation,"? food and agricultural organization.18

The treaty constituting an international security organization may provide not only for economic but also for social cooperation—that is, for cooperation in the fields of labor, health, drug control, education, and human rights in general.19 It may contain provisions concerning the treatment of non-self-governing peoples, especially colonies, by placing their administration under a system of international control.20 However, these functions are not directly connected with its main purpose—the prevention of war 21—and therefore not essential elements of a system of collective security in the strict sense of this term.

NOTES

1. Article I of many Mutual Defense Assistance Agreements refers to "the principle that economic recovery is essential to international peace and security and must be given clear priority."

18. Lionel Robbins, The Economic Causes of War, (1939), p. 99; cf. also pp. 15 ff, 57.

2. Robbins, op. cit., p. 105.
3. Edward Hallett Carr, Conditions of Peace (1942), p. xxiii.
4. Carr, op. cit., pp. 11, 30 ff.
5. Carr, op cit., pp. 12, 39 ff.
6. Carr, op cit., pp. 13 ff.

7. Economic cooperation was not a main purpose of the League of Nations. The only provision of the Covenant referring to this subject matter was Article 23 (e) which provided : "the Members of the League . . . will make provisions to secure and maintain freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind.” However, as a matter of fact, the activity of the League in the field of economic cooperation went far beyond the narrow limits of this provision, and in December 1939, the Assembly approved the report of a special committee—the so-called Bruce Committee, named for its Chairman, s. M. Bruce, Australian High Commissioner—which suggested the establishment of a Central Committee for Economic and Social Questions (The Development of International Co-operation in Economic and Social Affairs. Report of the Special Committee. Special Supplement to the Monthly Summary of the League of Nations, August 1939). The outbreak of the Second World War prevented the realization of this plan.

In the Charter of the United Nations, economic cooperation plays an important part. The preamble proclaims that the United Nations are determined "to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom" and to "employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples.” Article 1, paragraph 3, declares that it is a Purpose of the United Nations "To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character ..." Article 13, paragraph 1, letter b, confers upon the General Assembly the power to “initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of ... promoting international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, educacational, and health fields ..." and two Chapters (IX and X) containing Articles 55–72 are devoted to "International Economic and Social Cooperation" and “The Economic and Social Council.” The most characteristic provisions of these two chapters are:

“ARTICLE 55. With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and wellbeing which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:

a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

ARTICLE 61. 1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of eighteen Members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly. 2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, six members of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be eligible for immediate reelection. 3. At the first election, eighteen

members of the Economic and Social Council shall be chosen. The term of office of six members so chosen sball expire at the end of one year, and of six other members at the end of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by the General Assembly. 4. Each Member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative.

ARTICLE 62. 1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations with rei spect to any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned. 2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. 3. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling within its competence. 4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations, international conferences on matters falling within its competence.

ARTICLE 67. 1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one vote. 2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting."

8. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said in his address to the Monetary and Financial Conference, Washington, D. C., on 29 June 1944: "Economic diseases are highly communicable. It follows, therefore, that the economic health of every country is a proper matter of concern to all its neighbors, near and distant." In: Louise W. Holborn, Ed., War and Peace Aims of the United Nations (Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1948), p. 288.

9. Atlantic Charter (14 August 1941): "The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future of the world. . Fourth. They will endeavor ... to further the enjoyment by all states, great and small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity. Fifth, They desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field, with the object of securing, for all, . . . economic advancement and social security. ..."

10. Article 55 of the U.N. Charter. 11. Preamble to the U.N. Charter. 12. Article 55 of the U.N. Charter.

13. When after the First World War the problem of the cooperation of the United States and the United Kingdom for the economic reconstruction of Europe became urgent, Bernard Baruch, on behalf of the United States, advocated the following opinion: “The salvation of the world must rest upon the initiative of individuals" (H. R. G. Greaves, The League Committees and World Order, 1931, p. 66.) This is a typical expression of economic liberalism. From this point of view, economic cooperation as a function of an international organization is possible only in a negative sense: Its main purpose is to induce the governments of the members to remove all economic barriers. This was also the view of President Wilson who in point three of his fourteen points program of January, 1918, called for the "removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the

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