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Photograph of Hitler and SA officers, 1 January, 1938, p. 3.
Photograph of Streicher with SA men, and reviewing SA
Photograph of Goering in SA uniform reviewing SA
Photographs of Goering, Hess, and Hitler in SA uniform
Photograph of Goering marching in SA uniform, 19 Sep-
of his being made Obergruppenfuehrer of the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of the SA, 23 January, 1937, p. 3. Photograph of Goering leading Feldherrnhalle Regiment of SA in parade, 18 September, 1937, p. 3.
The work of the SA did not end with the seizure of the German government by the Nazis, but affiliation between the SA and Nazi leaders continued thereafter. The importance of the SA in connection with the Nazi Government and control of Germany is shown by the law of 1 December 1933 entitled, "The Law on Securing the Unity of Party and State" (1395–PS):
* * The Deputy of the Fuehrer and the Chief of Staff of SA become members of the Reich Government in order to insure close cooperation of the offices of the Party and SA with the public authorities." (1395-PS)
Similarly, a decree promulgated by Hitler providing for supervision of premilitary training by the SA declares:
"The offices of the Party and State are to support the SA in this training program and to value the possession of the certificate for the SA military insignia." (2383-PS)
The complete control of the SA by the Nazis at all times is shown by the so-called "Roehm Purge" of June 1934 (see 2407PS). Roehm had been Chief of Staff of the SA for several years, and was responsible for the development of SA into a powerful organization. SA members were required to take a personal oath of fidelity to Roehm. But when his policies conflicted with those of the Nazi leaders, he was removed, murdered, and replaced by Victor Lutze. This drastic action was accomplished without revolt or dissension in the ranks of the SA, and with no change in its objectives or program. The SA remained "a reliable and strong part of the National Socialist Movement
of obedience and blind discipline," whose function was to "create and form the new German citizens." (2407-PS)
The importance of the SA in the Nazi plan for the utilization of the people of Germany is shown in Hitler's pronouncement "The Course for the German Person," which appears in the issue of "Der SA-Mann" for 5 September 1936, at page 22. Hitler's statement reads as follows:
"The boy, he will enter the Young Volk, and the lad, he will enter the Hitler Youth, the young man will go into the SA, in the SS, and in other units, and the SA and SS men will one day enter into the labor service and from there to the Army, and the soldier of the Volk will return again into the Organization of the Movement, the Party, in the SA and SS and never again will our Volk decay as it once was decayed”. (3050-A-E-PS)
Thus the SA was constantly available to the conspirators as an instrument to further their aims. It was natural that Victor Lutze, the former Chief of Staff of the SA, in a pamphlet entitled “The Nature and Tasks of the SA," declared:
"The SA cannot be independent of the National Socialist Movement but can only exist as a part of it." (2471-PS)
B. Participation by the SA in the Conspiracy.
The principal functions performed by the SA in furtherance of the objectives of the conspiracy may be classified into four distinct phases, each of which corresponds with a particular phase in the progression of the conspiracy.
The first phase consists of the use of the SA and its members as the instrument for the dissemination of Nazi ideology throughout Germany. The employment of SA for this purpose continued throughout the entire period of the conspiracy. In the second phase, the period prior to the Nazi seizure of power, the SA was a militant group of fighters whose function was to combat all opponents of the Party. In the third phase, the period of several years following the Nazi seizure of power, the SA participated in various measures designed to consolidate the control of the Nazis, including the dissolution of the trade unions, the persecution of the church, and Jewish persecutions. During this period the SA continued to serve as a force of political soldiers whose purpose was to combat members of political parties considered hostile to the Nazi Party. The fourth aspect of SA activities consisted of its employment as an agency for the building up of an armed force in Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, and for the
preparation of the youth of Germany for the waging of an aggressive war.
(1) The Propagation of Nazi Doctrine. From the very start the Nazi leaders emphasized the importance of the SA's mission to disseminate Nazi doctrines. The responsibility of propagating National Socialist ideology remained constant throughout. This is shown in an excerpt from Mein Kampf in which Hitler declared:
As the directing idea for the inner training of the Sturmabteilung, the intention was always dominant, aside from all physical education, to teach it to be the unshakeable convinced defender of the National Socialist idea." (2760PS) Hitler's pronouncement as to the function of SA in this respect became the guiding principle of SA members, for Mein Kampf was taken to express the basic philosophy of the SA. The Organization Book of the Nazi Party declares that the training of SA members should consist of
"The training and rearing upon the basis of the teachings and aims of the Fuehrer as they are put down in 'Mein Kampf' and in the Party program, for all spheres of our life and our National Socialist ideology." (2354-PS)
The Party Organization Book also declares that the SA is the "training and rearing instrument of the Party." (2354PS)
Similarly, in an article which appeared in "Der SA-Mann", at page 1 of the issue of January 1934, the functions of the SA were set forth as follows:
"First, to be the guaranty of the power of the National Socialist State against all attacks from without as well as from within.
"Second, to be the high institute of education of the people for the living National Socialism."
The function of the SA as propagandist of the Party was more than a responsibility which SA took unto itself. It was a responsibility recognized by the law of Germany. The law for "Securing the Unity of Party and State," promulgated by the Reich Cabinet in 1933, provided:
"The members of the National Socialistic German Labor Party and the SA (including their subordinate organizations) as the leading and driving force of the National Socialist State will bear greater responsibility toward Fuehrer, people and State." (1395-PS)
As the principal ideology bearers of the Nazi Party SA members were "the soldiers of an idea," to use the expression employed by Nazi writers. Examples of the use of the SA as Nazi propagandist will be seen in the description of the other functions performed by the SA. For in each case the SA combined its propagandist responsibility instrument with the other functions which it performed in furtherance of the conspiracy.
(2) Strong-Arm Terrorization of Political Opponents. In the early stages of the Nazi Movement the SA combined propaganda with violence along the lines expressed by Hitler in Mein Kampf:
"The Young Movement from the first day, espoused the standpoint that its idea must be put forward spiritually but that the defense of this spiritual platform must, if necessary, be secured by strong-arm means." (2760-PS)
So that the Nazis might better spread their philosophies, the SA was employed to gain possession and control of the streets for the Nazis. Its function was to beat up and terrorize all political opponents. The importance of this function is explained in a pamphlet written by SA Sturmfuehrer Bayer, upon orders from SA Headquarters (2168-PS):
"Possession of the streets is the key to power in the State— for this reason the SA marched and fought. The public would have never received knowledge from the agitative speeches of the little Reichstag faction and its propaganda or from the desires and aims of the Party if the martial tread and battle song of the SA Companies had not beat the measure for the truth of a relentless criticism of the state of affairs in the governmental system. They wanted the young Movement to keep silent. Nothing was to be read in the press about the labor of the National Socialists, not to mention the basic aims of its platform. They simply did not want to awake any interest in it. However, the martial tread of the SA took care that even the drowsiest citizens had to see at least the existence of a fighting troop." (2168-PS) And in Mein Kampf Hitler defined the task of the SA as follows: "We have to teach the Marxists that the master of the streets in the future is National Socialism, exactly as it will once be the Master of the State." (2760-PS)
The importance of the work of SA in the early days of the Movement was indicated by Goebbels in a speech which appeared in Das Archiv in October 1935:
* * The inner-political opponents did not disappear due to mysterious unknown reasons but because the Move
ment possessed a strong-arm within its organization and the strongest strong-arm of the Movement is the SA (3211-PS) Specific evidence of the activities of the SA during the early period of the Nazi Movement (1922-31) is to be found in a series of articles appearing in "Der SA-Mann" entitled, "SA Battle Experiences Which We Will Never Forget." Each of these articles is an account of a street or meeting-hall battle waged by the SA against a group of political opponents in the early days of the Nazi struggle for power. These articles demonstrate that during this period it was the function of SA to employ physical violence in order to destroy all forms of thought and expression which might be considered hostile to Nazi aims or philosophy.
The titles of these articles are sufficiently descriptive to constitute evidence of SA activities. Some of these titles, together with the page and reference of "Der SA-Mann" upon which they appear, follow:
Article entitled: "We subdue the Red Terror," 24 Febru
ary, 1934: p. 4.
Article entitled: "Nightly Street Battles on the Czech
1934: p. 5.
"Victorious SA," 20 October, 1934: p. 7. Article entitled: "SA Against Sub-Humanity," 20 October, 1934: p. 7.
Article entitled: "For the Superiority of the Street," 10
Article entitled: "The SA Conquers Rastenburg," 26
Article entitled: "Company 88 Receives its Baptism of
Article entitled: "The SA Breaks the Red Terror," 1
Article entitled: "The Blood Sunday of Berlin," 10 Au-
Article entitled: "West Prussian SA Breaks the Red Terror in Christburg," 24 August, 1935: p. 15.
Portrait symbolizing the SA Man as the "Master of the
Article entitled: "9 November, 1923, in Nurnberg," 30