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Photographs of SA men marching under arms, and on the
rifle range, 30 September, 1938, p. 4. (Frankens-SA). Photograph of SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle marching in
goose-step with rifles and steel helmets and with the Luftwaffe insignia of sovereignty on their uniform and
helmets, 11 November, 1938, p. 4. Photograph entitled “Regiment Feldherrnhalle was there",
(referring to the incorporation of the Sudetenland), 14
October, 1938, p. 6.
Rifle. Something entirely new for the Sudeten German.
6 January, 1939, p. 3.
with the subheading: “The SA as Bearer of the Pre
military Training,” 27 January, 1939, p. 1. Photograph of Von Brauchitsch (Wehrmacht) and Lutze
reviewing the SA, 3 February, 1939, p. 3. Photograph of SA on march with full pack and rifles.
(Frankens-SA), 3 February, 1939, p. 1.
C. Cooperation with the Wehrmacht in Preparation for Aggression.
Evidence of the SA's participation in the conspiracy is found in the care which was taken at all times to coordinate the military training program of the SA with the requirements of the Wehrmacht. As early as 1934, an SA memorandum provided that the SA chief of training and his subordinates should remain
in direct touch with the respective offices and sections of the Reich Defense Ministry." (2823-PS) The same memorandum recites that a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Wehrmacht was assigned to the SA with the duty of participating
in all questions regarding training and organization * *” (2823-PS) Another SA memorandum declared that:
*permanent liaison between the Reich Defense Ministry and the Supreme Commander of the SA
has been assured.” (2821-PS) Hitler's words regarding cooperation between Wehrmacht and SA were as follows:
“The requirements of the Wehrmacht are to be taken into consideration in organization and training. “The Chief of Staff of the SA releases the required executionary directives in agreement with the Commander in Chief of the Wehrmacht units. He alone is responsible for
the fulfillment." (2383-PS) A speech by the Chief of Staff of the SA relating to the technical and specialized branches of the SA revealed that this opportunity for collaboration with the Wehrmacht in specialized military training was utilized to the utmost:
“In the course of this development also special missions for military betterment (program) were placed on the SA. The Fuehrer gave the SA the cavalry and motor training and called SA Obergruppenfuehrer Littmann as Reich Inspector with the mission to secure the
recruits and requirements for the German Wehrmacht through the SA. In close cooperation with parts of the Wehrmacht special certificates were created for the communication, engineer and medical units which, like the cavalry certificate of the SA, are valued as statement of preference for employment in said
units.” (3215-PS) The specialized training given SA members, in accordance with the requirements of technical branches of the Wehrmacht, is described by SA Sturmfuehrer Bayer as follows (2168-PS):
On one side the young SA man who enters the armed forces (Wehrmacht) from his branch, comes prepared with a multitude of prerequisites which facilitate and speed up training in technical respects; while on the other side those very soldiers, having served, who return out of the armed forces into the SA keep themselves, by constant practice, in a trained condition physically and mentally and impart their knowledge to their fellows. “Thus they contribute a considerable portion to the enhancement of armed strength (Wehrkraft) and armed spirit
(Wehrgeist) of the German people.” (2168-PS) And, with respect to the mounted or cavalry SA
the SA each year is able to furnish many thousands of young trained cavalrymen to our Wehrmacht
At present the SA cavalry has at its disposal 101 cavalry units in whose schools, year in and year out, young Germans who are obligated for military service receive the training which fits him for entrance into a section of troops
which is of their own choosing." (2168-PS) The close relationship between the SA and the Wehrmacht is
shown throughout the issues of “Der SA-Mann”, which contain á number of articles on military training written by Wehrmacht officers. The same relationship is shown in many photographs. For example, in the issue of 1 May, 1937, at page 4, there is a picture of a Wehrmacht formation drawn up in front of an SA building with SA officers and men in the background. The picture is entitled
"Day after day the closed formations of the Wehrmacht march in Wurzburg to the subscription places of the SA for thanksgiving to the nation in order to announce its close relation with the SA, and to express thanks to the Fuehrer
for making the Reich capable of defense." Page 2 of the issue of 27 January, 1939, contains a photograph of the SA Chief of Staff, Lutze, addressing a group of SA men, The photograph bears the caption, “We will be the bridge between the Party and the Wehrmacht.” Page 3 of the issue of 3 February, 1939, reproduces a photograph of General von Brauchitsch and Chief of Staff Lutze reviewing an SA unit.
The close cooperation between the Wehrmacht and the SA, and the significance of the SA military training program is shown by the fact that service in the SA was considered as military service under the Conscription Law of 1935. The Organization Book of the Party declared that
"Equally significant is a suitable education and training
"It was announced that conscripted SA men and Hitler
(3214-PS) There was never any misunderstanding among SA men as to the reasons which lay behind their military training program. They were preparing for war and knew it. The purpose of the socalled “Sports Program” was announced time after time in articles in “Der SA-Mann." For example, the introduction to an article entitled, “The War of Tomorrow," which appeared in the issue of 6 July, 1937, at page 12, declared :
“By decree of the Fuehrer of 18th March, 1937, the SA Sport Badge was declared as a means for the aggressive training of the body, for the fostering of a military spirit, for the retaining of military efficiency and thereby as a basis for German military power.
In the following article an attempt is made to occupy every SA Fuehrer, who does not have the opportunity due to their profession or many-sided SA services, with questions concerning military policy and modern war direction, to give him an overall view of facts, teachings, opinions and beliefs which today are not without decisive influence upon the military policy, upon the character of the coming war and upon the modern national defense.”
D. Participation of the SA in Warfare.
It would be natural in view of the above quotation, to expect the SA to have been used as a striking force in the first steps of the aggressive warfare launched by Germany, and as a basis for so-called Commando Groups. Such was the case. SA units were among the first of the Nazi military machine to invade Austria in the spring of 1938. This fact was proudly announced in an article appearing in “Der SA-Mann” for 19 March, 1938, at p. 10, entitled, “We were the First !" Similarly, the SA participated in the occupation of the Sudetenland (3214-PS). It was announced that conscripted SA men and Hitler Youths could fulfill their military conscription duty in the SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle, commanded by General Field Marshall SA Obergruppenfuehrer Goering. The regiment was employed for the first time as Regiment of the Luftwaffe in the occupation of the Sudetenland, under its Fuehrer and Regimental commander SA Gruppenfuehrer Reimann.
SA participation in the occupation of the Sudetenland is also shown by an affidavit of Gottlob Berger, a former officer in the SS who was assigned to the Sudeten-German Free Corps (3036PS). Berger declares
1. In the fall of 1938 I held the rank and title of Oberfuehrer in the SS. In mid-September I was assigned as SS Liaison Officer with Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Free Corps at their headquarters in the castle at Dondorf outside Bayreuth. In this position I was responsible for all liaison between the Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler and Henlein and, in particular, I was delegated to select from the Sudeten Germans those who appeared to be eli
gible for membership in the SS or VT (Verfuegungs Truppe). In addition to myself, Liaison Officers stationed with Henlein included an Obergruppenfuehrer from the NSKK, whose name I have forgotten, and Obergruppenfuehrer Max Juettner, from the SA. In addition, Admiral Canaris, who was head of the OKW Abwehr, appeared at Dondorf nearly every two days and conferred with Henlein. “2. In the course of my official duties at Henlein's Headquarters I became familiar with the composition and activities of the Free Corps. Three groups were being formed under Henlein's direction: One in the Eisenstein area, Bavaria, one in the Bayreuth area; one in the Dresden area, and possibly a fourth group in Silesia. These groups were supposedly composed of refugees from the Sudetenland who had crossed the border into Germany, but they actually contained Germans with previous service in the SA and NSKK [Nazi Motor Corps) as well. These Germans formed the skeleton of the Free Corps. On paper the Free Corps had a strength of 40,000 men. Part of the equipment furnished to Henlein, mostly haversacks, cooking utensils and blankets,
were supplied by the SA.” (3036-PS) The adaptability of the SA to whatever purpose was required of it is demonstrated by its activities subsequent to the outbreak of the war. During the war the SA continued to carry out its military training program, but it also engaged in various other functions:
"The General of the SA, Wilhelm Schepmann, gave further
nearly million members to the Wehrmacht.” (3219-PS) The SA even extended its activities into Poland:
"By command of the General of the SA, the 'SA-Unit General Government' was established, the command of which