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already been referred to in Section 3 of Chapter IX on Aggression Against Austria.)
In the late afternoon Goering gave the following order to SeyssInquart:
"Now, remember the following: You go immediately together with Lt. General Muff and tell the Federal President that if the conditions which are known to you are not accepted immediately, the troops who are already stationed in and advancing to the frontier will march in tonight along
the whole line, and Austria will cease to exist." (2949-PS) Early the same evening he dictated to Seyss-Inquart the telegram which the latter was to send to Berlin requesting the Nazi Government to send German troops to "prevent bloodshed”. Two days later he was able to call Ribbentrop in London and say:
"Yes, the last march into the Rhineland is completely overshadowed. The Fuehrer was deeply moved, when he talked to me last night. You must remember it was the first time that he saw his homeland again. Now, I merely want to talk about political things. Well, this story we have given an ultima
tum, that is just foolish gossip.” (2949–PS) Goering played a similarly important role in the attack on Czechoslovakia. In March of 1938, at the time of the Anschluss with Austria, he had given a solemn assurance to the Czechoslovakian Minister in Berlin that the developments in Austria would in no way have a detrimental influence on the relations between Germany and Czechoslovakia, and had emphasized the continued earnest endeavor on the part of Germany to improve these mutual relations. In this connection, Goering used the expression: "Ich gebe Ihnen mein Ehrenwort. (I give you my word of honor)' (TC-27). On the other hand, in his address to German airplane manufacturers on 8 July 1938, he made his private views on this subject clear:
"Beyond this they fear that once we have pocketed Czechoslovakia, we will attack Hungary, the Romanian oil wells, etc. Moreover, since there are democratic countries on the one hand, and authoritarian ones on the other, there is enough inflammable matter in the world anyway. When, how and where this inflammable matter will explode, no one among us can say. It may happen within some months, but it may also take some years. At present, the situation is this that Czechoslovakia has promised the Sudeten Germans to meet them half way. I am convinced that they will satisfy no more than some of their unimportant demands. Such action on their part would probably suit our policy best, since in
this case we could put the entire responsibility on England because she has engaged herself so deeply in this business."
(R-140) On 14 October 1938, shortly after the Munich agreement, Goering gave his views on the Czechoslovakian question at a conference in the Air Ministry:
“The Sudetenland has to be exploited with all the means. General Field Marshal Goering counts upon a complete industrial assimilation of the Slovakia. Czech and Slovakia would become German dominions. Everything possible must be taken out. The Oder-Danube Canal has to be speeded up. Searches for oil and ore have to be conducted in Slovakia,
notably by State Secretary Keppler.” (1301-PS) Meanwhile, he was deceiving the representatives of the puppet Slovakian government to the same end :
“The Field Marshal considers that the Slovak negotiations toward independence are to be supported in a suitable manner. Czechoslovakia without Slovakia is still more at our
mercy.” (2801-PS) In the following year, with the rape of Czechoslovakia complete Goering frankly stated what Germany's purpose had been throughout the whole affair:
“In a rather long statement the field marshal explained that the incorporation of Bohemia and Moravia into the German economy had taken place, among other reasons to increase the German War potential by exploitation of the industry
there." (R-133) Goering was also a moving force in the later crimes against the peace. As the successor designate to Hitler, as Chief of the Air Forces, and as economic czar of Greater Germany, he was a party to all the planning for military operations of the Nazi forces in the East and the West. In the Polish affair, for example, it was Goering who in 1935 gave assurances to the Polish government that "there should be not the slightest fear in Poland that on the German side it (the German-Polish alliance) would not be continued in the future.” Yet, four years later, Goering helped formulate plans for the invasion of Polish territory.
With regard to the attack upon the Soviet Union, plans for the ruthless exploitation of Russian territory were made months in advance of the opening of hostilities. Goering was placed in charge of this army of spoliation, whose mission was that of “seizing raw materials and taking over all important concerns.” (1317-PS; 1157-PS.)
These specific instances cover only a small part of Goering's
activities in the field of aggressive war. There follows a partial list of additional documents which demonstrate Goering's knowledge of and continued participation in the Nazi war program. They deal either with conferences on the highest war-planning levels which he attended, or with secret orders communicated to him outlining in advance the official plans for the execution of the successive acts of aggression.
Meetings and Conferences Attended: Conference in Reichskanzlei, 5 November 1937, to outline the necessity for expanding German foreign policy; plans discussed for the acquisition of Austria and Czechoslovakia. (386-PS)
Entry in Jodl diary, 10 March 1938, referring to meeting attended by Goering and others at which the preparation of "Case Otto" and the mobilization of the army and the air force were ordered. (1780-PS)
Top secret conference with Hitler on 23 May 1939, the subject of which was indoctrination on the political situation and foreign aims. (L-79)
Meeting with Hitler, 22 August 1939, attended by commanders of the armed forces at which immediate plans for Polish invasion were discussed. (L-3, 798-PS, 1014-PS)
Hitler's speech to all military commanders on 23 November 1939, regarding the invasion of the low countries. (789–PS)
Meetings of 8 February 1941 and 27 March 1941, at which Hitler outlined the prospective operations against Yugoslavia and Greece. (1746-PS)
Orders and Other Directives Received: Directive of Blomberg to the armed forces containing plans for military operations in the event that sanctions were applied against German withdrawal from League of Nations. (C-140)
Top secret directive of Blomberg of 2 May 1935, with plans for operation “Schulung” (the reoccupation of the Rhineland). (C-139)
Top secret letter from Blomberg dated 24 June 1935, enclosing copy of secret Reich Defense Law of 21 May 1935 and decision of Reich Cabinet of the same date. (2261-PS)
Order of Blomberg of 2 March 1936, giving the operational basis for the Rhineland occupation. (C-159)
Directives from Hitler and Keitel April to August 1939 on preparation and invasion of Poland. (C-120)
Operational file, "Fall Weiss," the code name for the Polish operation. (C-126)
Directive from GAF, dated 25 August 1938, regarding the acquisition of bases in the low countries. (375–PS)
Directive No. 6 for the conduct of the war, dated 9 October 1939, signed by Hitler, and orders of Keitel, dated 15 November 1939, on the plans for "Fall Gelb", (operation in the West). (C-62)
Orders of the Supreme Command from 7 November 1939 to 9 May 1940, regarding the opening of the invasion in the West. (C-72)
Order of Hitler No. 8, 20 November 1939, for the execution of "Fall Gelb". (440-PS)
Operational plans signed by Keitel on 28 November 1939, on action near the French-Belgium borders. (C-10)
Entries in Jodl diaries from 1 February to 26 May 1940 confirming plans for invasion of the West. (1809-PS)
OKW orders, 27 January 1940, signed by Keitel on preparation for "Fall Weseruebung" (Invasion of Norway and Denmark). (C-63)
Fuehrer order of 1 March 1940 for the execution of "Fall Weseruebung.” (C-174)
Most secret order from Hitler's headquarters, dated 19 February 1941, on plans for the invasion of Greece. (C-59)
Top secret operational order on “Case Barbarossa” (invasion of the Soviet Union), dated 13 March 1941, signed by Keitel. ( 447-PS)
Time table for "Case Barbarossa," signed by Keitel. (C-39)
Top secret memorandum of 29 October 1940, signed by Falkenstein, Luftwaffe liaison officer with OKW, discussing need for the seizure of air bases in the event of future war with the United States. (376-PS)
Basic order No. 24, dated 5 March 1941, signed by Keitel, regarding German collaboration with Japan. (C-75)
B. WAR CRIMES.
(1) Forced Labor, Deportation, and Enslavement of Residents of Occupied Territories.
The slave labor program of the Nazi conspirators had two criminal purposes. The first was to satisfy the labor requirements of the Nazi war machine by forcing residents of occupied countries to work in Germany, often directly in the German armament industry, and the second was to destroy or weaken the peoples of the occupied territories. Millions of foreign workers were taken to Germany, for the most part under pressure and generally by physical force. These workers were forced to labor under conditions of undescribable brutality and degredation, and
often they were used in factories and industries devoted exclusively to the production of munitions of war. (See Chapter X on The Slave Labor Program.)
Goering was at all times implicated in the slave labor program. Recruitment and allocation of manpower and determination of working conditions were included in his jurisdiction as Plenipotentiary for the Four-Year Plan, and from its beginning a part of the Four-Year Plan Office was devoted to such work. (1862-PS; 2827-PS.).
The defendant Goering was present at a meeting in Hitler's study on 23 May 1939 at which Hitler, after declaring his intention to attack Poland at the first suitable opportunity, said:
“If fate brings us into conflict with the West, the possession
(L–79) Soon after the fall of Poland, Goering as Plenipotentiary for the Four-Year Plan, began the enslavement of large numbers of Poles. On 25 January 1940, the defendant Frank, then Governor General of Poland, reported to Goering as follows:
"For the execution of the task of systematically placing the economic strength of the Generalgouvernement, within the framework of the Four-Year Plan, in the service of the German defense industry, I give the following
DIRECTIVES “1. In view of the present requirements of the Reich for the defense industry, it is at present fundamentally impossible to carry on a long-term economic policy in the Generalgouvernement. Rather, it is necessary so to steer the economy of the Generalgouvernement that it will, in the shortest possible time, accomplish results representing the maximum that can be gotten out of the economic strength of the Generalgouvernement for immediate strengthening of our capacity for defense. “2. (g) Supply and transportation of at least 1 million male and female agricultural and industrial workers to the Reich -among them at least 7500 000 (sic] agricultural workers of which at least 50% must be women in order to guarantee agricultural production in the Reich and as a replacement for industrial workers lacking in the Reich.
(1375-PS) That orders for this enormous number of workers originated