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of economic penetration, to fomentation of anti-Semitism; from cultural and political infiltration to the instigation of treason. Activities were carried on throughout the world and extended to such widely separated points as the Middle East and Brazil. (007-PS)

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(1) Activities in Hungary, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg. Much of the APA's achievements were brought about through the subtle exploitation of personal relationship. Activities in Hungary proceeded as follows:

The first foreign state visit after the seizure of power took place through the mediation of the Foreign Affairs Bureau. Julius Gombos, who in former years had himself pursued anti-Semitic and racial tendencies, had reached the Hungarian Premier's chair. The Bureau maintained a

personal connection with him.” (007-PS) The APA endeavored to strengthen the War Economy by shifting the source of food imports to the Balkans:

“Motivated by reasons of War Economy, the Bureau advocated the transfer of raw material purchases from overseas to the areas accessible by overland traffic routes, i. e., primarily in the Balkans, naturally insofar as practicable. At first little heed was paid to the Bureau in these endeavors, but it later secured the active support especially of the Food Estate [Naeurstand). Through its cooperation, e. g., on the subject of fruit and vegetable imports, a very substantial shift in the source of imports was attained, particularly through the currently initiated cooperation with Croatian and Hungarian cooperatives as well as with commercial as

sociations all over the Balkans." (007-PS) Activities in Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg were confined to “observation of existing conditions” and “to the establishment of relations, especially of a commercial nature." (007-PS)

(2) Activities in Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq. In Iran the APA achieved a high degree of economic penetration, in addition to promoting cultural relations:

"The Bureau's initative in developing, with the help of com-
mercial circles, entirely new methods for the economic pene-
tration of Iran found expression, in an extraordinarily fa-
vorable way, in reciprocal trade relations.
“Naturally in Germany, too, this initiative at first en-
countered a completely negative attitude ‘and resistance on

the part of the competent state authorities, an attitude that
had first to be overcome.
“In the course of a few years the volume of trade with Iran
was multiplied five-fold, and in 1939 Iran's trade turnover
with Germany had attained first place. Even Soviet Russia,
the competitor who had been biggest and most dreaded pre-
viously, had been eliminated from the running. Concurrently
with activation of commercial relations, the Bureau had
also intensified cultural relations and had, in conjunction
with growing commercial influence and in closest collabora-
tion with the Iranian Government, created a series of cultural

institutions headed and directed by Germans." (007-PS) Rosenberg further reports on APA activities in other parts of the world:

“Afghanistan's neutral position today is largely due to the Bureau's activity."

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"The Arab question, too, became part of the work of the Bureau. In spite of England's tutelage of Iraq the Bureau established a series of connections to a number of leading personalities of the Arab world, smoothing the way for strong bonds to Germany. In this connection, the growing influence of the Reich in Iran and Afghanistan did not fail

to have repercussions in Arabia." (007-PS) In view of the numerous “personal connections” maintained by the Bureau in many different countries, it is not difficult to surmise what Rosenberg meant when he stated at the conclusion of his report:

“The Bureau has carried out the initiating of all politically feasible projects. With the outbreak of war it (the APA] was entitled to consider its task as terminated.

The exploitation of the many personal connections in many lands can be resumed under a different guise.

“ (Signed) Rosenberg" (007-PS)

(3) Activities in Rumania. Annex Two of the report deals with activities in Rumania. Here the APA's intrigue was more insidious, its interference in the internal affairs of a foreign nation more pronounced. After describing the failure of what Rosenberg terms a "basically sound anti-Semitic tendency", due to dynastic squabbles and party fights, Rosenberg describes the APA's influence in the unification of conflicting elements:

"What was lacking was the guiding leadership of a politi

cal personality. After manifold groping trials the Bureau believed to have found such a personality—the former Minister and poet, Octavian Goga. It was not difficult to convince this poet, pervaded by instinctive inspiration, that a Greater Romania, though it had to be created in opposition to Vienna, could be maintained only together with Berlin. Nor was it difficult to create in him the desire to link the fate of Rumania with the future of the National-Socialist German Reieli in good time. By bringing continuing influence to bear, the Bureau succeeded in inducing Octavian Goga as well as Professor Cuza to amalgamate the parties under their leadership on an Anti-Semitic basis. Thus they could carry on with united strength the struggle for Rumania's renascence internally, and her Anschluss with Germany externally. Through the Bureau's initiative both parties, which hal heretofore been known by distinct names, were merged as the National-Christian Party, under Goga's leadership and with Cuza as Honorary President." (007-PS,

A11202 11) Rosenberg's man, Goga, was supported by two “splinter parties” which had not joined the anti Semitic trend of these two parties. Rosenberg has this to say:

Through inicnediaries, the Bureau maintained constant contact with both tendencies, just as it constantly consulted with Gogy, through Stafi Director [Stabsleiter] Schicken

danz, about tactics to be followed." (007-PS, Annex II) Goga was appointed Prime Minister by the King in December 1937. The influence of Rosenberg's ideology had achieved a major triumph, for he states:

"Thus a second government on racial and anti-Semitic foundations hard appeared in Europe, in a country in which such an event had been considered completely impossible.(007

PS, ANTI) Rosenberg's intrigues made a significant contribution to Nazi preparations for aggressive war, and the benefit to Germany's position in the Balkans was great. Rosenberg reports that upon Goga's resignation he left a personal heir in Marshal Antonescu, who was appointed by Goga as Minister of War against the wishes of the King. Of Antonescu Rosenberg says:

"After Goga's resignation, Antonescu still remained in the king's cabinet at Goga's wish. He also maintained continued relations with the Iron Guard. Thereby the possibility of eliminating the king was at hand and was ex

ploited. Antonescu today appears in practice as executor of the heritage bequested to him by Goga, who had led him from political insignificance into the political arena. Thereby a change to Germany's liking had become possible in Rumania.

“(Signed) Rosenberg." (007-PS)

It will be recalled that on 5 September 1940 Antonescu became President of the Rumanian Council of Ministers and immediately suspended the Rumanian constitution. King Carol abdicated on the following day, and Rumania existed as a German satellite throughout the war. Rosenberg's aims had been achieved.

The substantial contribution which Rosenberg had thus made to Germany's strategic plans for aggressive war is evident from a brief review of the military action which followed in the wake of his political maneuvers. Shortly after King Carol's abdication Antonescu “invited" German troops to "protect” the Rumanian oil fields. When Hungary subscribed to the Axis pact a few weeks later, Germany acquired a continuous land bridge to the Black Sea, through Austria, Hungary, and Rumania. When Bulgaria subscribed to the Pact in March 1941, a German thrust southward through Yugoslavia and Greece became feasible, for with Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria secure, the entire German eastern flank was safe from attack. A month later, Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded. Only when they were overcome was Germany free to attack the Soviet Union. Seven weeks after the fall of Crete, Germany launched her war on the U.S.S.R. Thus, Rosenberg's intrigue in Rumania provided a vital link in the chain of the German strategy of aggression.

(4) Relations with Quisling in Norway. Rosenberg also played a leading role in the development of fifth-column activities in Norway. He fostered the development of close relations between Germany and Quisling, procured financial backing for Quisling's activities, and brought him into contact with Raeder and Hitler. Rosenberg kept the Reich informed as to internal developments in Norway through his contacts with Hagelin, Quisling's deputy, and took an active part in the development of plans for a Quisling coup in Norway. The record is clear that Rosenberg provided the inspiration and the means for the betrayal of Norway by Quisling and Hagelin-treason for which the Norwegian Government has tried, condemned, and executed them. (007-PS; C-64; C-65; C-66; 004-PS; 957-PS)

693255–47439

D. ROSENBERG'S PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HU. MANITY IN THE OCCUPIED EASTERN TERRITORIES.

Rosenberg participated in the conspiracy to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity in the areas of the Occupied East which he administered for over three years. This area included the Baltic States, White Ruthenia and the Ukraine, and the Eastern portion of Poland.

(The mass murder and mistreatment of the Eastern peoples, and the spoliation of their territories is discussed in Chapter X on Forced Labor, Chapter XIII on Germanization and Spoliation, Chapter XI on Concentration Camps, Chapter XII on Persecution of the Jews, Section 5 of Chapter XV on the SS, and Section 6 of Chapter XV on the Gestapo and SD.) Rosenberg bears personal responsibility for these crimes.

Rosenberg may contend that some of these crimes were committed against his wishes. There is, indeed, some evidence that he protested on occasion, not out of humanitarian reasons, but on the ground of political expediency. Rosenberg may also attempt to place the blame for these crimes on other agencies and other defendants. The documents prove, however, that he himself formulated the harsh policies in the execution of which the crimes were committed; that the crimes were committed for the most part by persons and agencies within his jurisdiction and control; that the other agencies which participated in the commission of these crimes were invited by him to cooperate in the administration of the East, although the brutal methods customarily employed by them were common knowledge; and that his Ministry lent full cooperation to their activities despite the criminal methods that were employed.

(1) Activities as Commissioner for the Central Control of Questions Connected with the East European Region." Rosenberg was actively participating in the affairs of the East as early as 20 April 1941, two months prior to the German attack upon the Soviet Union. On that date he was designated by Hitler as “Commissioner for the Central Control of Questions connected with the East European Region" (865-PS). The initial preparations undertaken by Rosenberg for fulfillment of his new task indicate the extent to which he cooperated in promoting the military plans for aggression. They also show that he understood his task as requiring the assistance of a multitude of Reich agencies and that he invited their cooperation.

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