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this racial struggle in order to spare us from going to battle

on account of this country again." (864-PS) Frank's own statements regarding the purposes of his administration in Poland should be considered in connection with the foregoing document. The economic and political responsibilities which had been conferred on Frank by Hitler, and according to which he "intended to administer Poland", were explained by Frank as follows in an interview that took place on 3 October 1939:

"Poland can only be administered by utilizing the country through means of ruthless exploitation, deportation of all supplies, raw materials, machines, factory installations, etc., which are important for the German war economy, availability of all workers for work within Germany, reduction of the entire Polish economy to absolute minimum necessary for bare existence of the population, closing of all educational institutions, especially technical schools and colleges in order to prevent the growth of the new Polish intelligentsia. 'Poland shall be treated as a colony; the Poles shall be the slaves of

the Greater German World Empire.'” (EC-344-16 & 17) The Hitler-Keitel protocol should also be construed in the light of various passages in Frank's diary relating to German policy in Poland. Illegality had been made in effect a canon of administration by the protocol, which provided that Frank's task involved “a hard racial struggle which will not allow any legal restrictions." Frank emphasized this point to his Department Heads at a conference on 19 December 1940:

In this country the force of a determined leadership must rule. The Pole must feel here that we are not building him a legal state, but that for him there is only one duty, namely, to work and to behave himself. It is clear that this leads sometimes to difficulties, but you must, in your own interest, see that all measures are ruthlessly carried out in order to become master of the situation. You can rely on me

absolutely in this." (2233-0-PS) It was the German purpose from the beginning to administer the General Government as colonial territory in total disregard of the duties imposed by International Law on an occupying power, and Frank's administrative policies were shaped in accordance with this policy. At the first conference with Department Heads of the General Government on 2 December 1939, Frank stated:

“Decisive in the administrative activities of the General Gov

ernment is the will of the Fuehrer that this area shall be the

first colonial territory of the German nation." (2233-K-PS) The “hard racial struggle” which Keitel and Hitler agreed could be solved only if attacked without "legal restrictions," developed into the struggle which had as its ultimate purpose the Germanization of the General Government.

Frank's adherence to the conspirators' Germanization policy was clearly expressed by him at an official meeting of political leaders of the NSDAP in Cracow on 5 August 1942. Frank explained on that occasion:

"The situation in regard to Poland is unique insofar as on the one hand—I speak quite openly—we must expand Germanism in such a manner that the area of the General Government becomes pure German colonized land at some decades to come; and, on the other hand under the present war conditions we have to allow foreign racial groups to perform here the work which must be carried out in the service of

Greater Germany.(2233-V-PS) Expediency, and expediency only, tempered Frank's treatment of the nonGerman population of the General Government in the "hard racial struggle" he was charged with administering. The General Government was destined to become "pure German colonized land”, the valley of the Vistula to be as "German as the valley of the Rhine.” (2233-H-PS)

As for the Poles and Ukrainians, Frank's attitude was clear. They were to be permitted to work for the German economy as long as the war emergency continued. Once the war was won, he told the District Standortfuehrung and Political Leaders at a conference at Cracow on 14 January 1944:

then, for all I care, mincemeat [Hackfleisch] can be made of the Poles and the Ukrainians and all the others who run around here—it does not matter what happens." (2233-BB-PS)

E. FRANK ADVOCATED AND ADMINISTERED A PROGRAM OF EXTERMINATING JEWS OF POLISH NATIONALITY WITHIN THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT.

Frank's diary makes it clear that the complete annihilation of Jews, in accordance with the racial program of the Nazi conspirators, was one of the objectives of his administration as Governor General. In the fall of 1940 Frank urged German soldiers to reassure their families in Germany with regard to the hardships of life in the General Government:

“In all these weeks, they [i. e., your families] will be think-
ing of you, saying to themselves: My God, there he sits in
Poland where there are so many lice and Jews, perhaps he
is hungry and cold, perhaps he is afraid to write.
It would not be a bad idea then to send our dear ones back
home a picture, and tell them: well now, there are not so
many lice and Jews any more, and conditions here in the
Government General have changed and improved somewhat
already. Of course, I could not eliminate all lice and Jews
in only one year's time (public amused). But in the course
of time, and above all, if you help me, this end will be at-
tained. After all, it is not necessary for us to accomplish
everything within a year and right away, for what would
otherwise be left for those who follow us to do?" (2233-

C-PS).
A year later at a Cabinet Session of 16 December 1941 Frank
restated the official policy of his administration with respect to
Jews:

As far as the Jews are concerned, I want to tell you quite frankly, that they must be done away with in one way or another. The Fuehrer said once: should united Jewry again succeed in provoking a world war, the blood of not only the nations which have been forced into the war by them, will be shed, but the Jew will have found his end in Europe

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“Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourselves of all feeling
of pity. We must annihilate the Jews, wherever we find
them and wherever it is possible, in order to maintain here
the structure of the Reich as a whole. This will, naturally,
be achieved by other methods than those pointed out by
Bureau Chief Dr. Hummel. Nor can the judges of the Spe-
cial Courts be made responsible for it, because of the limita-
tions of the framework of the legal procedure. Such out-
dated views cannot be applied to such gigantic and unique
events. We must find at any rate, a way which leads to
the goal, and my thoughts are working in that direction.
“The Jews represent for us also extraordinarily malignant
gluttons. We have now approximately 2,500,000 of them in
the General Government, perhaps with the Jewish mixtures
and everything that goes with it, 3,500,000 Jews. We cannot
shoot or poison those 3,500,000 Jews, but we shall neverthe-
less be able to take measures, which will lead, somehow, to
their annihilation, and this in connection with the gigantic
measures to be determined in discussions from the Reich.

The General Government must become free of Jews, the same as the Reich. Where and how this is to be achieved is a matter for the offices which we must appoint and create here. Their activities will be brought to your attention in

due course." (2233-D-PS) An earlier passage in the report of this session of the Cabinet explains the references to Dr. Hummel. Hummel had complained that legal formalities were obstructing the process of liquidation:

"In Warsaw, in spite of the setting up of a third court chamber, we have been able to decree only 45 death sentences, only 8 of which have been carried out, since in each individual case, the Pardon Commission [Gnadenkommission] in Cracow has to make the final decision. A further 600 sentences were demanded and are under consideration. An effective isolation of the ghetto is not possible by way of the Special Court Procedure. The procedure to be followed up to the liquidation takes too much time; it is burdened with too

many formalities and must be simplified.” (2233Q-PS) Frank himself ordered that every Jew seen outside the Ghetto should be executed:

“Severe measures must and will be adopted against Jews leaving the Ghettos. Death sentences pending against Jews for this reason must be carried out as quickly as possible. This order according to which every Jew found outside the Ghetto is to be executed, must be carried out without fail."

(2233-Q-PS) When ways and means of meeting the food deficit in the General Government created by the increase in quotas to be requisitioned for export to Germany were discussed in August 1942, Frank approved a program which provided in part as follows:

“The feeding of a Jewish population, estimated heretofore at 1.5 million, drops off to an estimated total of 300,000 Jews, who still work for German interests as craftsmen or otherwise. For these the Jewish rations, including certain special allotments which have proved necessary for the maintenance of working capacity, will be retained. The other Jews, a total of 1.2 million, will no longer be provided with

foodstuffs." (2233-E-PS) Frank's concurrence was expressed in the following terms:

“That we sentence 1.2 million Jews to die of hunger should be noted only marginally. It is a matter of course that should the Jews not starve it would, we hope, result in speeding up anti-Jewish measures." (2233-E-PS)

At an official meeting of the political leaders of the NSDAP on 5 August 1942, Frank made the following progress report:

“What a dirty people made up of Jews swaggered around here before 1939! And where are the Jews today? You scarcely see them. If you see them they are working."

(2233-V-PS) In December 1941, Frank had pointed out that his administration could not shoot or poison all the three and a half million Jews in the General Government. He had promised, however, that he would be able to devise measures which would lead to their annihilation. Two years later, at a special press conference in January 1944, he was able to report that his mission was almost accomplished.

"At the present time we have still in the General Government perhaps 100,000 Jews.” (2233-F-PS)

F. FRANK IMPOSED UPON THE POPULATION OF THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT A REIGN OF TERROR, OPPRESSION, IMPOVERISHMENT, AND STARVATION.

What had happened in the General Government in the first three and a half years of Frank's administration was summarized by Frank in a report to Hitler on the situation in Poland, dated 19 June 1943:

“In the course of time, a series of measures or of conse-
quences of the German rule have led to a substantial dete-
rioration of the attitude of the entire Polish people in the
German Government. These measures have affected either
individual professions or the entire population and frequently
also—often with crushing severity—the fate of individuals.
"Among these are in particular:
“1—The entirely insufficient nourishment of the population,
mainly of the working classes in the cities, whose majority
is working for German interests.
"Until the war of 1939, its food supplies, though not varied,
were sufficient and generally secure, due to the agrarian
surplus of the former Polish state and in spite of the negli-
gence on the part of their former political leadership.
2—The confiscation of a great part of the Polish estates
and the expropriation without compensation and resettle-
ment of Polish peasants from manoeuvre areas and from Ger-
man settlements.
“3—Encroachments and confiscations in the industries, in
commerce and trade and in the field of private property.

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