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extending military and labor service to German citizens abroad; the decree of 16 June 1938 extending the military service law to Austria (1660-PS); and the decree of 30 April 1940 extending the Military Service Law to the incorporated eastern territories (see 3043-PS; 1389-PS; 388-PS, item 20).

Frick also supported the military training program of the SA, for the financing of which his Ministry of Interior was called upon to supply funds (1850-PS).

Additional evidence that Frick contributed to Germany's rearmament for aggressive war is contained in a secret order, 25 July 1933, from the Supreme Command of the SA on the subject, "Publications of the SA." This order states that several days before 25 July 1933 the Reich Ministry of the Interior at the request of the Foreign Office gave strict instructions to all Reich authorities that the most severe control was to be exercised over all publications which might give other countries an opportunity to construe German activities as infringements of the Versailles Treaty (D-44).

(2) Fifth column activities abroad. In further preparation for the aggressive wars planned by the conspirators, Frick used his power, prestige, and funds as Minister of the Interior in order to command support for the organization of a Fifth Column abroad among foreign nationals of German ancestry. In a circular of 24 February 1933 issued less than a month after the conspirators had taken over the government of Germany, Frick ordered all State governments to support, especially financially, the organization work of the League for Germandom Abroad among the

“30 million Germans in foreign countries [Auslandsdeutschen] outside of the present contracted borders of the Reich (who] are an integral part of the entire German

people." (3258-PS) Frick at a later date stated even more clearly the true purpose of this German Fifth Column he was helping to organize abroad. In his speech at the twentieth annual meeting of the official German Foreign Institute held in Stuttgart, on 11–15 August 1937, Frick stated that

"the new Germany has recognized that its attention and devotion to the welfare of the millions of Germans who have not the fortune to owe political allegiance to Germany, but who are condemned to live abroad, are not merely a matter of natural sympathy and solidarity, but are in a higher

degree dictated by the strong political and economic interests of the Reich." (3258-PS)

(3) Organization of civilian agencies for war. Frick's principal contribution to the war preparations of the Nazi conspirators lay in his role as General Plenipotentiary for the Administration of the Reich. He occupied this position as a member of the Reich Defense Council, beginning on 21 May 1935 (2978-PS). In this capacity, Frick had complete authority over

"the uniform direction of the nonmilitary administration

with the exception of the economic administrations." He was given control over the Ministries of Interior, Justice, Education, Churches, and the Office for Spatial Planning, in order to direct their entire planning activities in preparation of war (2986-PS; 2194-PS). This was Frick's responsibility during the more than 4 years that elapsed before the actual launching of the conspirators' first aggressive war.

As General Plenipotentiary for the Administration, Frick was a member of the so-called Three-Man Committee, with Schacht, later Funk (Economy), and Keitel (OKW). This small group, which was empowered to legislate by decree on all matters relating to war preparedness, represented during these decisive years, from 1935 to 1939, a compact, powerful body in which could be concentrated the conspirators' preparations for war (2986-PS; see also Section 3, chapter XV on the Reich Cabinet).

In a speech made on 7 March 1940 at the University of Freiburg, Frick admitted the significant part he played in the preparations for war and as a member of the triumvirate created by the secret Reich Defense Law.

The organization of the nonmilitary national defense fits organically into the entire structure of the National Socialist government and administration. This state of affairs is not exceptional, but a necessary and planned part of the National Socialist order. Thus, the conversion of our administration and economy to wartime conditions has been accomplished very quickly and without any friction-avoiding the otherwise very dangerous changes of the entire structure of the State. The planned preparation of the administration for the possibility of a war has already been carried out during the peace. For this purpose, the Fuehrer appointed a Plenipotentiary General for the Reich Administration and a Plenipotentiary General for the Economy. The Plenipotentiary

General for the Administration was placed in charge of the coordination of the nonmilitary administrations, with the exception of the Administration of Economics." (2608-PS)

F. FRICK'S PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT WAR CRIMES.

Frick, as Minister of the Interior, was charged with the administrative policy for all occupied and annexed territories. For this purpose, the Ministry contained a Division for Incorporated Territories, with Subdivisions entitled Reorganization in the South-East, the Protectorate, the East, and the West (3475-PS).

When the Nazi conspirators embarked on their program of "bloodless” territorial aggrandizement, Frick was in control of the incorporation and administration of these territories. Thus, it was Frick's Ministry which introduced the German New Order and German law throughout the territories of Europe occupied by the German Armed Forces. Frick exercised these powers in the Saar; in Austria (2307-PS, 3075-PS); in the Sudetenland (3076-PS); in Bohemia and Moravia (2119PS); in Memel; and in Danzig (3077-PS).

When the conspirators started their aggressive wars, Frick was specifically charged with the organization and integration of the territories illegally» annexed by Germany. Among the territories over which Frick was given control were the Incorporated Eastern Territories, the Gouvernment-General of Poland, Eupen, Malmedy, and Moresnot, and Norway.

In the exercise of this over-all administrative control:

(1) Frick provided in detail for the administration of occupied Polish Territory. It was Frick who was responsible for the installation of an SS Chief in the Territory in charge of the Police and the forced resettlement program (3304-PS).

(2) Frick provided the administrative personnel for the government of these occupied territories. Thus, he arranged for the selection and assignment of hundreds of occupation officials for Russia before the invasion had even begun (1039-PS).

Similarly, Wilhelm Stuckart, former Under-Secretary of the Interior under Frick, has stated in an interrogation:

"As far as I knew, the officials for the new territories were selected by the Personnel Office [of the Ministry of the Interior) according to their qualifications, their physical condition, and maybe also their knowledge of the language.”

(3570-PS) (3) Frick had complete charge of the program of denationali

693255—47–43

zation, under which certain groups of citizens in annexed territories were forced during the progress of the war to abandon their original national allegiance and to accept German nationality. The decree of 4 March 1941 established a German Racial Registry under which allied nationals of German stock were required to accept German nationality and to remove to German territory (2917-PS). Among the conquered territories in which these activities of Frick were felt were Bohemia and Moravia, Upper Corinthia and Lower Styria, Eupen, Malmedy, and Moresnot, and the Incorporated Eastern Territories (see 3225-PS).

These measures place upon Frick a full share of responsibility for the war crimes committed by the conspiracy in the occupied and annexed territories.

G. FRICK'S PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.

Frick actively participated in the execution of the conspirators' program of atrocities and Crimes against Humanity. Even without such personal participation, however, Frick has admitted that he could properly be charged with having for 12 years continued in the Reich Cabinet, after he had realized the direction the conspiracy was taking (3043-PS).

The scope of Frick's personal and direct responsibility for Nazi Crimes against Humanity is so broad that reference need be made only to a few of the most significant instances.

(1) Gestapo atrocities and concentration camps. Frick, as jurisdictional head of the German Police Administration, is responsible for the crimes and atrocities perpetrated by the German police, especially the Gestapo and SD, inside and outside of Germany. (See 1643-PS; also Chapter XI on Concentration Camps.)

As already stated, Frick demonstrated particular interest in the “medical” experiments carried on in the concentration camps under the personal direction of Himmler. Frick paid a personal visit to Germany's oldest concentration camp, Dachau, in 1943, for the purpose of inspecting the malaria station and Dr. Rascher's Experimental Station (3249-PS). There he could personally acquaint himself with the forced subjection of healthy camp înmates to malarial mosquitos and the air-pressure and freezing experiments on human beings carried on by Dr. Rascher.

(2) Oppression of inhabitants of occupied territories. As administrative head of the occupied territories, Frick issued decrees depriving the inhabitants of their rights and subjecting them to a

cruel and discriminatory regime. Among these enactments were the decree of 4 December 1941 establishing a special penal law for the Polish and Jewish inhabitants of the Gouvernment General (R-96), (1249-PS); the decree of 1 July 1943 depriving Jews of rights remaining to them under the decree of 4 December 1941 (1422-PS); and the Himmler ordinance of 3 July 1943 charging the Gestapo with the execution of the decree of 1 July 1943 (published in Frick's Ministry of Interior Gazette 1943, p. 1085) (3085-PS).

Similarly, the Decree on the Utilization of Eastern Workers, which required that they be paid salaries substantially below those fixed for German workers holding similar jobs, was signed in Frick's name by his Secretary of State.

(3) Systematic killing of insane, ill, aged, and incapacitated foreign slave laborers. Frick's greatest guilt perhaps rests on his responsibility, as Reich Minister of the Interior, for the systematic killing of the insane, the sick, and the aged, including those foreign forced laborers who were no longer able to work. These killings were carried out in nursing homes, hospitals, and asylums. Frick, in his capacity of Reichsminister of the Interior, had full jurisdiction over all these institutions (3475-PS).

Proof that the Reichministry of the Interior under Frick actually exercised this jurisdiction is to be found in a letter of 2 October 1940 (621-PS) from the Chief of the Reich Chancellery, Dr. Lammers, to the Reichsminister of Justice. The letter informed the Minister of Justice that the Chief Prosecutors' reports concerning the death of inmates of nursing homes had been transmitted to the Reichsminister of the Interior for further action (621-PS). Through other correspondence Frick's Ministry of the Interior was informed of the unexplained deaths of insane persons (1696-PS; 1969-PS).

The most striking example of the continued killings in these institutions, which were under Frick's jurisdiction, is the famous Hadamar case. Systematic killing started at the Hadamar nursing home as early as 1939. At least as early as 1941 Frick was officially acquainted with the fact that these killings had become public knowledge. Proof is found in a letter from the Bishop of Limburg of 13 August 1941 to the Reichsminister of Justice, copies of which were sent to the Reichsminister of the Interior and the Reichminister for Church Affairs. The letter reads in part as follows:

About 8 kilometers from Limburg, in the little town of Hadamar, on a hill overlooking the town, there is an

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