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physician today called our attention to the fact that the num-
ber of colds is going up because of the question of insufficient
clothing
Many of the men and women still have to go barefooted.
They have no underwear and it often happens that people
who wear foot bandages because of injuries walk barefooted
on these bandages." (D-271; see also D-355, D-312)

(4) Prisoners of war and foreign laborers at the Krupp works were denied adequate medical care and treatment, and as a consequence, suffered severely from a multitude of diseases and ailments. (a) In the above mentioned affidavit, Dr. Jaeger has stated:

“The percentage of eastern workers who were ill was twice
as great as among the Germans. Tuberculosis was particu-
larly widespread among the eastern workers. The T.B. rate
among them was 4 times the normal rate (2% eastern work-
ers, Germans .5%). At Dechenschule approximately 21,2%
of the workers suffered from open T.B. These were all active
T.B. cases. The Tartars and Kirghiz suffered most; as soon
as they were overcome by this disease they collapsed like
flies. The cause was bad housing, the poor quality and insuffi-
cient quantity of food, overwork, and insufficient rest.
"These workers were likewise afflicted with spotted fever.
Lice, the carrier of this disease, together with countless fleas,
bugs and other vermin, tortured the inhabitants of these
camps. As a result of the filthy conditions of the camps
nearly all eastern workers were afflicted with skin disease.
The shortage of food also caused many cases of Hunger-
Odem, Nephritis and Shighakruse.
"It was the general rule that workers were compelled to go
to work unless a camp doctor had prescribed that they were
unfit for work. At Seumannstrasse, Grieperstrasse, Ger-
maniastrasse, Kapitan-Lehmanstrasse, and Dechenschule,
there was no daily sick call. At these camps, the doctors did
not appear for two or three days. As a consequence, workers
were forced to go to work despite illnesses."

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At the end of 1943, or the beginning of 1944,—I am not completely sure of the exact date—I obtained permission for the first time to visit the prisoner of war camps. My inspection revealed that conditions at these camps were even

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worse than those I had found at the camps of the eastern workers in 1942. Medical supplies at such camps were virtually non-existent. In an effort to cure this intolerable situation, I contacted the Wehrmacht authorities whose duty it was to provide medical care for the prisoners of war. My persistent efforts came to nothing. After visiting and pressing them over a period of two weeks, I was given a total of

100 aspirin tablets for over 3,000 prisoners of war.(D-288) (6) In a memorandum dated 7 May 1943, prepared at the Krupp hospital, entitled "Deaths of Eastern Workers," report was made of the death of 54 "eastern workers.” Of this number, 38 died of tuberculosis, 2 of undernourishment, and 2 of intestinal disease. (D-283)

(c) In his “strictly confidential report concerning the prisoner of war camp at Noggerathstrasse, Dr. Jaeger reported :

"The food is barely sufficient. Krupp is responsible for housing and feeding. The supply of medicine and bandages is so extremely bad that proper medical treatment was not possible in many cases. This fact is detrimental to the P. W. camp. It is astonishing that the number of sick is not higher than it is and it moves between 9 and 10 percent." (D-339;

also D-313). (d) In a special medical report dated 28 July 1944, Dr. Jaeger wrote:

“The sick barrack in Camp Rabenhorst is in such bad condition, one cannot speak of a sick barrack anymore. The rain leaks through in every corner. The housing of the ill is therefore impossible. The necessary labour for production is in danger because those persons who are ill cannot recover.

(D-338)

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(5) Russian juveniles were compelled to work at the Krupp factories, and prisoners of war and foreign workers were generally forced to work long hours, to and beyond the point of exhaustion.

(a) In a memorandum marked "secret", dated 14 August 1942, Reiff, a Krupp official, wrote:

I am under the impression that the better Russian workers are first of all chosen for the works in Central and Eastern Germany. We really get the bad remainders only. Just now 600 Russians, consisting of 450 women and 150 juveniles, 14 years of age, arrived.” (D-348; similar proof is contained in D-281).

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(6) In a memorandum from the Chief of the Krupp Camp Catering Department, it is stated :

It is to be considered that foreigners must work 12 hours on principle out of which, 1 hour counts as a break and consequently will not be paid." (D-233; for evidence concerning complete exhaustion of foreign workers and prisoners of war, see D-313).

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(6) The prisoners of war and foreign laborers used at the Krupp works were beaten, tortured, and subjected to inhuman indignities. (a) In a sworn statement, Heinrich Buschhauer has stated :

I admit that I hit Russians. The Russians were very willing and attentive. The clothing of the Russians was very bad and torn. Their feet were wrapped in rags. The appearance of the people was bad, they were thin and pale. Their cheeks had fallen in completely. In spite of this, I was forced to ill-treat the people on the orders of works manager Theile. I have boxed the people's ears and beaten them with a 34 rubber tube and a wooden stick.

The more energetic I went against these people, the more the Works Manager liked it. I

had to drive and beat the Russians in order to get increased production from them. At times, I had up to two thousand foreigners under

The Russians could not possibly work more than they did, because the food was too bad and too little. The Works management, however, wanted to get still higher performance from them. It often happened that the Russians, so utterly weakened, collapsed.

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“The conditions which I have described above continued the whole of the years I was in the boiler making department. On 20th February 1943, I was transferred from the boiler

making shop to Nidia." (D-305). (6) Walter Thoene, a Krupp employee, likewise admitted in a sworn statement that he constantly beat foreign workers. He stated:

"I admit that I punched and beat Hungarian Jewesses who I had to supervise in No. 3 Steel Moulding Shop. I did not do this of my own free will but was ordered to do so by my works manager Reif, who was a Party Member like I was. Almost every day this unscrupulous man held me to it in no mistakable manner to driving on these Jewesses and getting

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better performances from them. He also always emphasized that I should not be trivial in the choice of means, and if necessary, hit them like hitting a piece of cold iron. As soon as I saw that these women were standing near the ovens, I

had to drive them back to their work.(D-355) Comparable admission were made by August Kleinschmidt, another Krupp employee. (D-306)

(c) Dr. Apolinary Gotowicki, a doctor in the Polish Army, who was taken a prisoner of war and in that capacity attended some Russian, Polish and French prisoners of war at the Krupp factories, has stated under oath:

Every day, at least 10 people were brought to me whose bodies were covered with bruises on account of the continual beatings with rubber tubes, steel switches or sticks. The people were often writhing with agony and it was impossible for me to give them even a little medical aid.

I could notice people daily who on account of hunger or ill-treatment, were slowly dying. Dead people often lay for 2 or 3 days on the pailliases until their bodies stank so badly that fellow prisoners took them outside and buried them somewhere.

I have seen with my own eyes the prisoners coming back from Krupps and how they collapsed on the march and had to be wheeled back on barrows or carried by their comrades.

The work which they had to perform was very heavy and dangerous and many cases happened where people had cut their fingers, hands or legs. These accidents were very serious and the people came to me and asked me for medical help. But it wasn't even possible for me to keep them from work for a day or two, although I had been to the Krupp directorate and asked for permission to do so. At the end of 1941, 2 people died daily and in 1942 the deaths increased to 3-4

per day.” (D-313) (d) A particular form of torture which was inflicted upon Russian workers was a steel cabinet specially manufactured by Krupp, into which workers were thrown after beatings. The cabinets are shown in photographs attached to a sworn statement wherein it is stated:

“Photograph ‘A’ shows an iron cupboard which was specially manufactured by the Firm of Krupp to torture Russian civilian workers to such an extent that it is impossible to describe. Men and women were often locked in one compartment of the cupboard, in which a man could scarcely stand,

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for long periods. The measurements of this compartment are height 1.52 meters, breadth and depth 40 to 50 cm. each. In fact, people were often kicked and pressed into one compartment in pairs. At the top of the cupboard, there were sieve-like air holes through which cold water was poured on the unfortunate victims during the ice-cold winter.” (D-382; for further evidence of constant beatings of for

eign workers, see D-253, D-312, D-354, and D-267). (e) Records found in the Krupp files plainly indicate that the practice of beating and torturing prisoners of war and foreign workers was deliberately prescribed by Krupp officials. Steel switches which were used to beat the workers were distributed pursuant to the instructions of Kupke, head of the Krupp camps for foreign workers (D-230). In a memorandum dated 19 March 1942, from the Krupp Works Catering Department, it was said:

With regards to the times ahead it seems desirable to us, to draw attention to the authorities concerned, with the necessary pressure, to the fact that only severest treatment of the French prisoners of war will ensure that they maintain their performance even with the present food

position, which is the same for German workers.” (D-278). As previously shown, Hassel, an official in the Krupp works police, stated that the Russians “ought to have beatings substituted for food(D-318).

(7) The Krupp companies specifically requested and actively sought out the employment of prisoners of war and foreign laborers.

(a) In a memorandum dated 13 July 1942 by Weinhold, a Krupp official, complaint was registered over the fact that "the foreign laborers are only available two to three months after they have been asked for by us.” (D-281).

(b) In a letter to the Krupp firm dated 27 August 1942, Colonel Zimmerman of the Oberkommando des Heeres, said:

"According to our estimate, there ought to be enough workers in your ignitor workshops to reach the demanded production figure. This especially, as the 105 Russians, demanded by your firm at the Conference of the special committee M 111 on the 24.4.42, were assigned to your works at the beginning of June re-letter from Wa J Ru (Mun. 2).

“Unfortunately, I found out at the sitting of the special committee M 111 on the 26.8.42 that the firm of Krupp asks for another 55 workers, including 25 skilled labourers, with

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