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CONTENTS

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Hon. Carlisle P. Runge, Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower)------

Edward L. Katzenbach, Jr., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Edu-

cation and Manpower Resources)--------

John C. Broger, Director of the Directorate for Armed Forces Information

and Education, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower) -

Maj. Gen. C. G. Dodge, Chief of Public Information and Chief of Informa-

tion, Department of the Army ----

Col. Alexander F. Muzyk, Chief, Troop Information Division, Office of

Chief of Public Information, Department of the Army-en-

Col. Ben W. Legare, Chief, Public Information Division, Office of Chief of

Public Information, Department of the Army------

Lt. Col. William E. Mayer, Medical Corps of the U.S. Army----

Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall, U.S. Army Reserve (retired)----

Rear Adm. A. S. Heyward, Jr., U.S. Navy, Deputy and Assistant Chief of

Naval Personnel.--------

Capt. A. R. Gallaher, U.S. Navy, Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel for

Education and Training----

Capt. Donald G. Baer, U.S. Navy, Special Assistant to the Chief of Naval

Personnel for Leadership.--.

--

Additional information:

Statement from Reserve Officers Association of the United States. ---

Recommendations from-

John C. Broger, Director of the Directorate for Armed Forces

Information and Education, Office of the Assistant Secretary of

Defense (Manpower)-----

Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall, U.S. Army Reserve (retired)------

Lt. Col. William E. Mayer, Medical Corps of the U.S. Army---

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WITNESSES

Baer, Capt. Donald G., U.S. Navy, Special Assistant to the Chief of Naval

Personnel for Leadership.--.

Broger, John C., Director of the Directorate for Armed Forces Information

and Education, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower).

Dodge, Maj. Gen. C. G., Chief of Public Information and Chief of Infor-

mation, Department of the Army ----

Gallaher, Capt. A. R., U.S. Navy, Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel for

Education and Training---

Heyward, Rear Adm. A. Š., Jr., U.S. Navy, Deputy and Assistant Chief of

Katzenbach, Edward L., Jr., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Edu-

cation and Manpower Resources) ---
Legare, Col. Ben W., Chief, Public Information Division, Office of Chief of

Public Information, Department of the Army----
Marshall, Brig. Gen. S. L. A., U.S. Army Reserve (retired)----
Mayer, Lt. Col. William E., Medical Corps of the U.S. Army-.
Muzyk, Col. Alexander F., Chief, Troop Information Division, Office of

Chief of Public Information, Department of the Army ------

Runge, Hon. Carlisle P., Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower)----

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MILITARY COLD WAR EDUCATION AND SPEECH

REVIEW POLICIES

THURSDAY, MARCH 8, 1962

U.S. SENATE,
· SPECIAL PREPAREDNESS SUBCOMMITTEE
OF THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES,

Washington, D.C. The special subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:06 a.m., in room 318, Old Senate Office Building.

Present: Senators Stennis (chairman), Thurmond, Saltonstall, Smith, and Case of South Dakota.

Also present: Special subcommittee staff–James T. Kendall, chief counsel.

CHAIRMAN'S OPENING STATEMENT Senator STENNIS. The subcommittee will please come to order.

The chairman has a brief statement to make as we enter a new phase of this testimony.

Although the subcommittee has not entirely completed its inquiry into the policy review or censorship practices and procedures which apply to speeches by military personnel, we are putting this subject aside temporarily until additional information is available to us from the Department of State.

Today we will hear from witnesses whose testimony will be directed primarily and specifically to the troop information and education program. This, then, marks our entry into the second phase of the investigation.

We intend to explore fully all pertinent aspects of this vital and important problem. It is my belief and my sincere hope that the subcommittee can and will make a substantial contribution in determining the proper scope of troop information and education programs and the emphasis to be given thereto.

It is my conviction that any military indoctrination or education program which is directed toward educating our fighting men as to reasons for their military service must and should begin with a positive and affirmative emphasis upon the merits and advantages of our own democratic way of life.

Of course, our military personnel should and must be fully informed as to the Communist techniques of infiltration and subversion and of the threat and menace which the insidious communistic ideology presents to our cherished traditions of liberty and individual freedom. However, while it is necessary that we enlighten military personnel as to the nature of the world struggle, it is also essential that we instill in him a positive conviction of the virtue of our own cause. In

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other words, I am convinced that we must give our military people something to fight for and not merely something to fight against.

I want to add, too, that this is not just a problem for the military; it is a problem for every segment of our life; it is a problem at the teaching level, a problem in the home, in our social and civic organizations, and everywhere else.

In the very nature of things, since some of the witnesses who appear will be knowledgeable on both subjects, the phase of the hearing devoted to troop information and education will also include a considerable amount of testimony touching upon the public information or cold war seminar activities, which for the purposes of the investigation has been designated as being the third phase of the investigation. We shall proceed with the current phase of the inquiry as rapidly as is consistent with a thorough inquiry into the subject matter and will then take up such other appropriate matters as have not been otherwise adequately covered.

I am asked to announce for Senator Thurmond that he is unavoidably detained for something like 15 minutes. Senator Thurmond has been very faithful in his attendance but he will be here this morning in something like 15 minutes. We will proceed with the preliminary parts of the hearing in his absence.

Our first witnesses this morning are Assistant Secretary Runge and Deputy Assistant Secretary Katzenbach.

Gentlemen, I think you can be sworn at the same time, if you will stand, please.

Do you and each of you solemnly swear that your testimony in these hearings will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?

Mr. RUNGE. I do.
Mr. KATZENBACH. I do.

RUNGE BIOGRAPHY Senator STENNIS. We have a biographical sketch of Assistant Secretary Runge. We will place it in the record, Miss Reporter, at this point. And beginning with the testimony of Mr. Katzenbach we will put his biographical sketch in the record. (The biographical sketch of Carlisle P. Runge is as follows:)

CARLISLE P. RUNGE, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (MANPOWER) Carlisle Piehl Runge was born in Seymour, Wis., on March 23, 1920. He received his Ph. B. in 1946 and his LL.B. in 1948 from the University of Wisconsin. He attended Oxford University in 1945.

From 1948 to 1951, Mr. Runge was Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Wisconsin. From 1951 to the present, he has been associated with the University of Wisconsin law faculty and is now professor of law, as well as coordinator of the university's National Security Studies Group. He served as assistant dean of the Wisconsin Law School from 1955 to 1959. During 1959 and 1960, Mr. Runge served as chairman of the university's Special Committee on ROTC.

Mr. Runge served with the 3d U.S. Army during World War II, being commissioned through the ROTC program in 1942 and discharged as a major in 1946. He received the Bronze Star Medal and four battle stars for services in the European theater of operations. At present, Mr. Runge is commander of the 32d Infantry Division Trains, Wisconsin Army National Guard and holds a Reserve commission as a colonel in the Army Quartermaster Corps.

He is a member of the Madison Park Commission and the city's special planning committee. Runge served as deputy chairman of the Wisconsin Legislative Council Committee on War Emergency Legislation during 1958 and 1959.

He is a member of Sigma Phi, Phi Delta Phi, Wisconsin State Bar, Wisconsin Historical Society, National Guard Association, the United States Army Association and the Institute for Strategic Studies.

Senator SALTONSTALL. May I ask a question?
Senator STENNIS. Yes, Senator Saltonstall.

RUNGE'S ARMY RESERVE STATUS

Senator SALTONSTALL. I notice in your biographical sketch that you are commander of the 32d Infantry Division, Wisconsin Army National Guard, and that you hold a position as colonel in the Army Quartermaster Corps. Do you still hold those in your present job as Assistant Secretary? TESTIMONY OF CARLISLE P. RUNGE, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF

DEFENSE (MANPOWER) Mr. RUNGE. Senator, I am afraid that the biography is inaccurate to the point that I am no longer the commanding officer of this unit, which, as you know, is on active duty at Fort Lewis, Wash.

Senator SALTONSTALL. That is what I wanted to bring out. Are you a Reserve officer now? Mr. RUNGE. I am, indeed, I am a colonel in the Army. Senator SALTONSTALL. Not on active duty ? Mr. RUNGE. Not on active duty.

Senator SALTONSTALL. You are not biased in what you do for the Defense Department by your outside activities?

Mr. RUNGE. No, sir.

EXECUTIVE MEETING ON HEARING SCHEDULE Senator STENNIS. Mr. Runge, we are happy to have you here with us this morning. We consider this part of our hearings to be very important. It relates to a very important part of your duties and responsibilities. I am sure you feel that way. . I want to say that we had a very fine executive meeting of the subcommittee yesterday, in which we outlined what we expect to present in this phase of the hearing. There was a great degree of cooperation among all the members to try to be helpful by keeping the hearings moving along as fast as we can, consistent with our obligations, and by agreeing that questioning would be done largely by the counsel for the subcommittee. Of course, every Senator will also have the right to ask questions.

But even with the best prospects, I think it is going to take a rather long time to hear these matters, so we are going to try to keep the hearing moving.

All right, Mr. Runge, if you will proceed, please. Mr. RUNGE. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, it is a pleasure to appear before you today to discuss the philosophy and policies of the internal troop information program of the Department of Defense.

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