Needless Deaths in the Gulf War: Civilian Casualties During the Air Campaign and Violations of the Laws of War

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Human Rights Watch, 1991 - Всего страниц: 402
Based on interviews conducted during the war with those who fled bombing as well as subsequent research and analysis, this challenges the report of allied commanders that they took every feasible step to avoid civilian death and injury. It also examines Iraqi attacks on Israel and Saudi Arabia.

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VERIFICATION OF MILITARY OBJECTIVES
51
COLLATERAL CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE
52
THE RULE OF PROPORTIONALITY
53
WARNING REQUIREMENT
54
SPECIAL LEGAL PROTECTION
55
SPECIAL PROTECTION FOR CIVILIAN DEFENSE SHELTERS
60
THE AIR WAR AGAINST IRAQ
63
US PUBLIC STATEMENTS
73
THE MEANS AND METHODS OF ATTACK
87
DAYTIME BOMB AND MISSILE ATTACKS ON TARGETS IN POPULATED AREAS
93
One Hundred Killed in Daytime Attack on Bridge in Southern City
94
Scores of Civilians Killed in Flawed Attack on Bridge in Western Iraq
95
Denials and then Admissions by the Allies about the Attack
98
Scores of Civilians Killed in Daytime Attack on Bridge near Market in Southern City
100
Scores of Workers Killed in Market Area of Southeastern City
102
Morning Bombing Near Crowded Market Area in Basra
103
Daytime Bombing of Bridges in Basra
105
Scores of Civilians Waiting for Cooking Gas Killed and Injured During Daytime Attack
106
Civilian Factory in Southern City Bombed in Afternoon Seven Killed
107
Legal Standards Conclusions and Unanswered Questions
108
SMART BOMBS DUMB BOMBS AND INACCURATE ATTACKS ON TARGETS IN CIVILIAN POPULATION CENTERS
111
THE AMERIYYA AIR RAID SHELTER
126
OBJECTS ATTACKED THE NEED FOR FULL DISCLOSURE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
147
THE NEED FOR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE
152
REPORTS OF ATTACKS ON FOOD AGRICULTURAL AND WATERTREATMENT FACILITIES
158
THE CRIPPLING OF THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
169
CIVILIAN VEHICLES ON HIGHWAYS
191
US Public Statements
193
An Inquiry by Middle East Watch
197
Attacks on Civilian Vehicles Carrying Evacuees to Jordan
199
TWO CARS DIRECTLY HIT BY DIVING AIRCRAFT IN DAYTIME ATTACK KILLING TWO FAMILIES
200
30 KILLED IN ATTACK ON BUS
202
CLUSTER BOMB FALLS METERS FROM TWO CARS IN DAWN ATTACK
203
STRAFING OF BUSES ON HIGHWAYS DURING DAYTIME
204
31 DEAD IN DAYTIME ATTACK ON CIVILIAN VEHICLES
206
Legal Standards and Conclusions
208
Attacks on Jordanian Civilian Oil Tankers
211
Dependence on Imported Oil
212
Eyewitness Testimony
217
28TRUCK CONVOY HIT IN NIGHTTIME ATTACK
218
CLUSTER BOMB DROPPED AT TRUCK STOP IN AFTERNOON ATTACK
219
CLUSTER BOMB DROPPED IN DAYTIME ATTACK TWO INJURED
220
REFRIGERATOR TRUCK ATTACKED NEAR BORDER
221
OTHER ACCOUNTS OF STRAFING OF TRUCKS BY ALLIED AIRCRAFT
222
ATTACKS ON BEDOUIN TENTS
225
THE VIEW FROM THE GROUND EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE
229
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
230
BAGHDAD
243
WHAT WERE THE TARGETS?
255
WHAT WERE THE TARGETS?
257
DESTRUCTION OF THE CENTRAL BANK
260
FIVE TO SIX HOUSES TOTALLY DESTROYED IN THE WORKINGCLASS QUARTER
261
SIX HOUSES IN RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD SUSTAIN DIRECT HIT
262
COMMERCIAL AREA IN RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD BOMBED FOUR HOMES DAMAGED
263
ABOUT 60 HOMES DAMAGED IN SEVERAL ATTACKS IN ALMAQIL NEIGHBORHOOD
277
EIGHT ADOBE HOUSES DESTROYED IN ALZUBAYR SOUTH OF BASRA
278
ONLY HOSPITAL IN ALZUBAYR DESTROYED
279
MOSQUE DAMAGED
280
SMALL BRIDGE MISSED AGAIN RESTAURANTS AND BARS SUSTAIN DAMAGE
283
CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE FROM NIGHTTIME BOMBING OF RAILROAD STATION
284
SODABOTTLING PLANT DESTROYED
285
REPORTS OF ATTACKS ON OILINDUSTRY ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDINGS
286
OTHER CITIES AND TOWNS IN SOUTHERN IRAQ
289
36 HOUSES DESTROYED OR DAMAGED IN NIGHTTIME ATTACK
291
THREE HOUSES DESTROYED IN AN AGRICULTURAL VILLAGE
292
THREE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS DESTROYED
294
BOMB MISSES BRIDGE BY 500 METERS FALLS IN RESIDENTIAL QUARTER SIX KILLED
295
BRIDGE MISSED AGAIN ONE KILLED
296
HEALTH CLINIC AND SEVERAL HOUSES DESTROYED IN BOMBING OF BRIDGES
297
TELECOMMUNICATIONS TOWER MISSED 11 KILLED WHEN HOTEL IS DESTROYED
299
CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE IN SAMAWA FROM CLUSTER BOMBS
300
CITIES AND TOWNS IN WESTERN AND NORTHERN IRAQ
302
BOMB HITS HOUSE IN EARLY EVENING KILLING FIVE
303
BOMB HITS HOUSE IN MIDNIGHT ATTACK INJURED FAMILY OF 14 SURVIVES
304
SCHOOL COMPLETELY DESTROYED HOTEL DAMAGED AT LEAST THREE CIVILIANS KILLED
305
23 Houses in Agricultural Area Hit with Bombs in Two Separate Attacks No Survivors
306
Reports from Northern Iraq
307
IRAQS MISSILE ATTACKS AGAINST ISRAEL AND THE GULF STATES
313
OVERVIEW
315
TARGETS IN ISRAEL AND THE GULF STATES IRAQI PUBLIC STATEMENTS
325
MEANS AND METHODS OF ATTACK AND DEFENSE
333
CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE ISRAEL
345
Early Morning Hours of January 18
350
January 19
353
January 22
356
January 23
359
January 25
360
Varying Figures Unknown Targets
364
January 28 and January 31
366
Attacks on Night of February 23
368
February 6
369
February 9
370
February 11 and February 12
371
February 16
374
February 19
376
Early Morning Hours of February 25
377
CIVILIAN CASUALTIES AND DAMAGE SAUDI ARABIA
383
Dhahran Air Base
385
First Missiles Fired at Riyadh on January 21 Twelve Injured
387
The Second Attack on Riyadh No Civilian Casualties
390
Five Missiles Fired on January 23 No Civilian Casualties Reported
391
First Civilian killed as Missile Levels Wing of Interior Ministry Building in Riyadh on January 25 30 Injured
392
No Reported Casualties or Damage
394
February 3
395
February 11
396
February 14
397
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Стр. 51 - Refrain from deciding to launch any attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
Стр. 32 - The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.
Стр. 33 - The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.
Стр. 34 - Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces. 2. Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements...
Стр. 47 - ... those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective; or c) those which employ a method or means of combat the effects of which cannot be limited as required by this Protocol; and consequently, in each such case, are of a nature to strike military objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction.
Стр. 31 - In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives.
Стр. 51 - Take all feasible precautions in the choice of means and methods of attack with a view to avoiding, and in any event to minimizing, incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects...
Стр. 58 - It is prohibited to attack, destroy, remove, or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population...
Стр. 58 - ... 3. The prohibitions in paragraph 2 shall not apply to such of the objects covered by it as are used by an adverse Party: (a) As sustenance solely for the members of its armed forces; or (b) If not as sustenance, then in direct support of military action, provided, however, that in no event shall actions against these objects be taken which may be expected to leave the civilian population with such inadequate food or water as to cause its starvation or force its movement.
Стр. 178 - The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was established by the Secretary of War on 3 November 1944, pursuant to a directive from the late President Roosevelt. Its mission was to conduct an impartial and expert study of the effects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with air attacks on Japan and to establish a basis for evaluating the importance and potentialities of air power as an instrument of military strategy, for planning the future development of the United States...

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