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potentially infectious materials and should be discarded appropriately before leaving the laboratory.
4. Gloves should be worn to avoid skin contact with blood, specimens
containing blood, blood-soiled items, body fluids, excretions, and secretions, as well as surfaces, materials, and objects exposed to them.
5. All procedures and manipulations of potentially infectious material should
be performed carefully to minimize the creation of droplets and aerosols.
6. Biological safety cabinets (Class I or II) and other primary containment
devices (e.g., centrifuge safety cups) are advised whenever procedures are
7. Laboratory work surfaces should be decontaminated with a disinfectant,
such as sodium hypochlorite solution (see AS above), following any spill of potentially infectious material and at the completion of work activities.
8. All potentially contaminated materials used in laboratory tests should be
decontaminated, preferably by autoclaving, before disposal or reprocessing.
9. All personnel should wash their hands following completion of laboratory
activities, removal of protective clothing, and before leaving the laboratory. C. The following additional precautions are advised for studies involving experimental animals inoculated with tissues or other potentially infectious materials from individuals with known or suspected AIDS.
10. Laboratory coats, gowns, or uniforms should be worn by personnel
entering rooms housing inoculated animals. Certain nonhuman primates, such as chimpanzees, are prone to throw excreta and to spit at attendants; personnel attending inoculated animals should wear molded surgical masks and goggles or other equipment sufficient to prevent potentially infective droplets from reaching the mucosal surfaces of their mouths, nares, and eyes. In addition, when handled, other animals may disturb excreta in their bedding. Therefore, the above precautions should be taken when handling
11. Personnel should wear gloves for all activities involving direct contact with
experimental animals and their bedding and cages. Such manipulations should be performed carefully to minimize the creation of aerosols and droplets.
12. Necropsy of experimental animals should be conducted by personnel
wearing gowns and gloves. If procedures generating aerosols are performed, masks and goggles should be wom.
13. Extraordinary care must be taken to avoid accidental sticks or cuts with
sharp instruments contaminated with body fluids or tissues of experimental animals inoculated with material from AIDS patients.
14. Animal cages should be decontaminated, preferably by autoclaving, before
they are cleaned and washed.
15. Only needle-locking syringes or one-piece needle-syringe units should be
used to inject potentially infectious fluids into experimental animals. The above precautions are intended to apply to both clinical and
research laboratories. Biological safety cabinets and other safety equipment may not be generally available in clinical laboratories. Assistance should be sought from a microbiology laboratory, as needed, to assure containment facilities are adequate to permit laboratory tests to be conducted safely. Reported by Hospital Infections Program, Div of Viral Diseases, Div of Host Factors, Div of Hepatitis and Viral Enteritis, AIDS Activity, Center for Infectious Diseases, Office of Biosafety, CDC; Div of Safety, National Institutes of Health.
Disclaimer All MMWR HTML documents published before January 1993 electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Goverment Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800.
August 30, 1985 / 34(34);517-21
Current Trends Education and Foster Care of Children Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III/ Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus
The information and recommendations contained in this document were developed and compiled by CDC in consultation with individuals appointed by their organizations to represent the Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, the National Association of County Health Officers, the Division of Maternal and Child Health (Health Resources and Services Administration), the National Association for Elementary School Principals, the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants, the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, and the Children's Aid Society. The consultants also included the mother of a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a legal advisor to a state education department, and several pediatricians who are experts in the field of pediatric AIDS. This document is made available to assist state and local health and education departments in developing guidelines for their particular situations and locations.
These recommendations apply to all children known to be infected with human Tlymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-II/LAV). This includes children with AIDS as defined for reporting purposes (Table 1); children who are diagnosed by their physicians as having an illness due to infection with HTLV-IIVLAV but who do not meet the case definition; and children who are III/LAV. These recommendations do not apply to siblings of infected children unless they are also infected.
The Scope of the Problem. As of August 20, 1985, 183 of the 12,599 reported cases of AIDS in the United States were among children under 18 years of age. This number is expected to double in the next year. Children with AIDS have been reported from 23 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, with 75% residing in New York, California, Florida, and New Jersey.
The 183 AIDS patients reported to CDC represent only the most severe form of HTLV-II/LAV infection, i.e., those children who develop opportunistic infections or malignancies (Table 1). As in adults with HTLV-IIVLAV infection, many infected children may have milder illness or may be asymptomatic.
Legal Issues. Among the legal issues to be considered in forming guidelines for the education and foster care of HTLV-III/LAV-infected children are the civil rights aspects of public school attendance, the protections for handicapped children under 20 U.S.C. 1401 et seq. and 29 U.S.C. 794, the confidentiality of a student's school record under state laws and under 20 U.S.C. 1232g, and employee right-to-know statutes for public employees in some states.
Confidentiality Issues. The diagnosis of AIDS or associated illnesses evokes much fear from others in contact with the patient and may evoke suspicion of life styles that may not be acceptable to some persons. Parents of HTLV-IIVLAV-infected children should be aware of the potential for social isolation should the child's condition become known to others in the care or educational setting. School, daycare, and social service personnel and others involved in educating and caring for these children should be sensitive to the need for confidentiality and the right to privacy in these cases.
ASSESSMENT OF RISKS
Risk Factors for Acquiring HTLV-III/LAV Infection and Transmission. In adults and adolescents, HLTV-IIVLAV is transmitted primarily through sexual contact (homosexual or heterosexual) and through parenteral exposure to infected blood or blood products. HTLV-III/LAV has been isolated from blood, semen, saliva, and tears but transmission has not been documented from saliva and tears. Adults at increased risk for acquiring HTLV-II/LAV include homosexual/bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, persons transfused with contaminated blood or blood products, and sexual contacts of persons with HTLV-III/LAV infection or in groups at increased risk for infection.
The majority of infected children acquire the virus from their infected mothers in
child reported from Australia apparently acquired the virus postnatally, possibly
Risk of Transmission in the School, Day-Care or Foster-Care Setting. None of the identified cases of HTLV-III/LAV infection in the United States are known to have been transmitted in the school, day-care, or foster-care setting or through other casual person-to-person contact. Other than the sexual partners of HTLV-IISLAVinfected patients and infants bom to infected mothers, none of the family members of the over 12,000 AIDS patients reported to CDC have been reported to have AIDS. Six studies of family members of patients with HTLV-IIVLAV infection have failed to demonstrate HTLV-III/LAV transmission to adults who were not sexual contacts of the infected patients or to older children who were not likely at risk from perinatal transmission (6-11).
Based on current evidence, casual person-to-person contact as would occur among
Risks to the Child with HTLV-III/LAV Infection. HTLV-IIVLAV infection may result in immunodeficiency. Such children may have a greater risk of encountering infectious agents in a school or day-care setting than at home. Foster homes with multiple children may also increase the risk. In addition, younger children and neurologically handicapped children who may display behaviors such as mouthing of toys would be expected to be at greater risk for acquiring infections. Immunodepressed children are also at greater risk of suffering severe complications from such infections as chickenpox, cytomegalovirus, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and measles. Assessment of the risk to the immunodepressed child is best made by the child's physician who is aware of the child's immune status. The risk of acquiring some infections, such as chickenpox, may be reduced by prompt use of specific immune globulin following a known exposure.
1. Decisions regarding the type of educational and care setting for HTLV
IIVLAV-infected children should be based on the behavior, neurologic