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form with Swastika armlets. Later on they often used other Germans in the locality as auxiliaries.
6. There were 4,500 Jews in the Ghetto, which was very overcrowded. In August 1941 the SA therefore surrounded the whole Ghetto, and numbers of them went into the houses and took out women, children and old men, and put them into lorries and drove them away. I saw all this myself. It was done exclusively by SA. I saw them take children by the hair and throw them into the lorries. I did not see what happened to them but a Lithuanian told me afterwards that they had been driven 20 kilometres away and shot: he said he had seen the SA make them undress and then shoot them with automatic pistols.
7. In 1943 working parties were sent out from the Ghetto into the country and they sometimes brought back food such as potatoes. The SA searched them and if they found food on them they beat them in the streets. In June 1943 a man called MAZA. V ETZKI, a master baker, was caught by Bub with four or five cigarettes and some sausage.
He was beaten and brought to the District Commissioner's office. I was working in the Courtyard with other Jews and Bub said to the working party that the man must be hanged because he wanted to show that he too could hang Jews. Next Sunday we were all kept in the Courtyard and bub had Mazawetzki hanged in front of us by Jews.
8. The District Commissioner in whose Courtyard I worked was called GEWECKE. I saw him every day. He was in the SA.
9. The SS took over from the SA in September 1943, and the Ghetto then became a working commando. I declare the above to be true.
[signed] : 10 August 1946
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT D-970
25 September 1944. The Regional Commander of the Security Police and SD In the Government General IV 4 - 1036/44 To the Governor General Reich Minister Dr. Frank Cracow Castle. Subject: Prior of the Carmelite Monastery of Czerna. Previous reference: Known.
The incident under consideration took place within the framework of the action for obtaining people for the carrying out of special building operations in the district of Ilkenau. It came to the knowledge of the sub-Regional Commander of the Security Police and SD in Cracow via the branch office of Kressendorf and the strong point of Wolbron. As the place where the deed was committed lies within the area of the Einsatzstab of Ilkenau, the investigations were carried out by the Regional State Police HQ at Kattowitz-branch post Ilkenau. The results of the investigations which have been received provide the following facts:
The possibility of carrying out the planned building operations in the area in question within the period laid down was made doubtful by the fact that the various communities did not provide the number of workers imposed on them. As a result the construction staff at Kattowitz gave a special detachment composed of 12 SA men orders to bring in workers from the various villages. The execution of this task by this SA Einsatzkommando was in any case carried out by them in such a way that they first approached the village beadle and presented the demand to him. As the village beadles only carried out the demand they had received dilatorily, it became necessary to comb the houses for persons fit to work. In most cases the men of the SA Einsatzkommando were allegedly even requested to do so by the village beadles, as, according to what they said, the inhabitants only obeyed the order to work unwillingly and resisted. When the houses were searched, some of the inhabitants offered resistance, which had to be broken by the use of arms. In view of the fact that partisans had several times appeared in this area during recent times, the SA men reckoned that partisans were living in the villages during the day disguised as civilians. Besides this, when workers were obtained, the local conditions of the villages were—according to the investigations of the Regional State Police HQ Kattowitz-taken into account and workers in concerns which were of importance for the war effort were excepted from the measure.
The Prior of Czerna monastery was seized by members of the SA Einsatzkommando in Nowojewa Gora. He was told to remain with the men of the SA Einsatzkommando for the time being. While the members of the detachment were in a house in order to search it for workers, the prior—according to what the Regional State Police HQ Kattowitz established—used this opportunity which seemed suitable to him, to escape. As he did not stop when shouted at several times and after some warning shots had been fired, but, on the contrary, ran even faster and tried to escape, arms were used.
The prior had been arrested because he was alleged to have made negative statements to other workers about the Ostwall (Eastern Defensive Line) and the building undertaking, which tended to influence the labourers' already weak will to work in a still more unfavourable manner. It was intended to take the priest first to the constructional staff at Nielepiece and from there to the office of the Security Police, in order to carry out further investigations into this matter.
According to the report of the Regional State Police HQ Kattowitz, steps are to be taken to ensure that in future such operations are carried out not by SA men but by police officials.
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT D-971
S.A. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT COLOGNE
1. In May 1934 all German students of the age group due to take their leaving certificates in 1933 will be regimented by the S.A. University Department in order to be physically and mentally trained in a uniform manner in the spirit of the National-Socialist revolution in accordance with the Fuehrer's decree of 9.9.33.
2. All students of the 1933 leaving certificate age group will be regimented it being a matter of indifference whether they are S.A. men or candidates for the S.A. and such as worked in some job for some reason between matriculation and studying and are only now in their second or third term although they belong to an earlier age group.
3. According to the decree of 7.2.34 [in green pencil: not available in Cologne] S.A. service is compulsory for all German students.
In accordance with the decree of the Supreme S.A. Leadership F 6914 of the 27.3.34 [in pencil: attached] the ban on taking on newly matriculated students is raised in the period 25.4–5.5.34. Every student is thereby offered the possibility of joining the S.A.
4. The continuation of their studies depends for German students, as from their 5th term (this comes into force for the first time at Easter 1935) on the possession of a duly certified statement as to their year of service at the S.A. University Department.
The S.A. University Department lays down the following times, in agreement with the Rector, for reporting for service in the S.A. University Department:
From the 23 April to the 10 May 1934 daily from 10:00 to 12:00 o'clock in the Sociological lecture room.
University, Room 135 (entrance through room 132)
[signed] Deputy, Truppfuehrer.
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT D-972
Extract from SCHULTHESS'S CALENDER OF EUROPEAN
20-22 February Eden's conversation with the German Government in Berlin.
The British Government publishes in its White Book the following statement made on the occasion of Mr. Eden's visit to Berlin regarding the point of view taken up by the German Government with reference to the United Kingdom Memorandum:
The German Government would be prepared to concur on the basis of the reciprocity of the laying down of further regulations aimed at securing the non-military character of the SA and SS, suggested to Mr. Eden by the Reich Chancellor on the 21st February, under which this character would be supervised by a system of controls. These regulations would state that the SA and SS (1) will possess no arms, (2) will receive no instruction with arms, (3) will not be gathered or trained in military camps, (4) will not be trained either directly or indirectly by officers of the regular army, (5) may not undertake any field manoeuvres or take part in such.
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT D-973
AFFIDAVIT BY KURT EHRHARDT OF HAMBURG,
I am 51 years old. I was an independent businessman for twenty-seven years and had my head office in Hamburg and branch offices abroad. I am married and have four children.
I wished to join the N. S. D. A. P. in 1933, but the Party would not accept me as I had a Jewish brother-in-law and a Jewish partner. I had a friend, however, who was a doctor and a member of the S.S. and he was able to get me admitted into the S.S. where I was placed on the reserve.
I never did anything active in the S.S. and in 1937 I was expelled from the organization as the Party spies had found out that I had a Jewish brother-in-law and as my business was financed with Jewish capital. In 1938 my Jewish partner was able to leave Germany with my assistance. He went to London. I went to London also where my partner, Herr Fraenkel, sold me the business by a contract. We both stipulated in a secret contract that Fraenkel was to remain a partner. The present Court of Appeal Public Prosecutor of Hamburg, Dr. Klaas, was present. On my return to Hamburg the Gau refused to recognize the contract. That I succeeded in obtaining its recognition nevertheless I owe to the fearless efforts of Dr. Klaas.
After the end of the war, beginning in about May 1945, I worked for the Military Government (AD05). On about the 28.1.46 I was interned because I had been a member of the Allgemeine S.S. reserve. I remained in No. 6 Civilian Internment Camp, Neuengamme, for six months, until I was released in July 1946 and taken back by the Military Government, for which I am still working at the moment.
In my estimation there were about 3-4,000 men in No. 6 Internment Camp, among them members of the S.S., the Gestapo, and S.A. and political leaders. With the exception of a small group, to which I belonged myself all the internees had been and still remained keen Nazis.
Inside the camp the internees were organized by the senior Nazi leaders—among whom there was a number of Gauleiters, Kreisleiters and senior members of the S.S. and S.A.—along strictly National Socialist lines. I know from my own experience that many of these senior leaders maintained constant touch with their Kreis and their former organizations outside the camp, and that they did all they could to preserve and maintain the Nazi system and there was a terrific sign of terror until the list was sent off.
About the beginning of the year 1946 a lawyer who was defense council for the S.S. visited the camp and talked with leading members of the S.S. He gave them a questionnaire which was to be filled in and signed by members of the S.S. This questionnaire, as I understood it was to be used for defense purposes.
The questionnaire contained a number of questions which were