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num, taken orally or injected, produces after a certain time, particularly in the males of animals but also in the females, a lasting sterility. The illustrations which accompany the scientific work are convincing.
Provided that the idea expressed by me meets with your approval, the following path could be followed:
(1) Dr. Madous should not publish any more works of this kind (the enemy is listening too!).
(2) Propagation of the plant (easily raised in greenhouses !).
(3) Immediate experiments on humans (criminals!) in order to ascertain the dose and the duration of treatment.
(4) The quickest possible discovery of the formula of the composition of the effective chemical body in order to,
(5) produce the same synthetically if possible.
I myself, as a German doctor and a retired lieutenant of the reserve in the medical corps of the German Armed Forces, undertake complete silence on the use to which the subject raised by me in this letter is to be put.
[Sgd.) Dr. Pokorny Specialist on skin and venereal diseases, University Dr. of Medicine.
Graben 33. Komotau, October 1941
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 065
AFFIDAVIT OF OSWALD POHL
The Medical experiments were undertaken by order of Himmler. Representatives of the medical profession knowing how to describe to him a medical problem as one of the highest significance for science or having good friends who acted as intermediaries, could convince him easily. And that in spite of the fact that Himmler himself did not possess any more knowledge of medical science than the average educated layman. But he had enough opportunity to discuss such questions with the doctors of his staff and entourage and he probably did so (Grawitz, Gebbhardt, Brandt, Conti, u.s.)
Whenever he was interested in a matter he put all the help at his command to the disposal of the physicians, and always kept in personal contact with the project. He even informed himself personally of its progress. Whenever prisoners were put at disposal for an experiment, the orders usually went to the Inspektion. However, later on, they were sent also to me. But I do not believe it impossible that orders also were given directly to the camp commanders; otherwise, I should have had knowledge about more experiments as the ones described below.
When I intervened in 1944 against the transfer of prisoners for these purposes, with the explanation that they would be a loss to the work details, Himmler appointed Grawitz as his deputy in charge of operations of the experiments. From then on, he was in charge of the supervision and the reporting on all experiments which were ordered by Himmler. But Himmler's personal participation (Teilnahame) did not decrease.
Particulars During the period of April 1942 to the end of 1944, when the Inspektion was a part of the W.V.H.A., I gained knowledge of the following experiments:
1. Schilling. These tasks are probably sufficiently known through the trial of Schilling. Schilling, whom I did not know previously, conducted me through his installations in Dachau during a visit and told me a few things about malaria and malarial mosquitos. I believe this was the biggest experiment. This also has caused my protest to Himmler, because Schilling always asked for prisoners. How many were finally transferred to him, I do not know.
2. Rascher. My attention was called to these experiments by Himmler's written orders to me. The prisoners were transferred to Dachau. There, the experiments also took place. Himmler, during a stay in Munich, took me along for a visit. We saw a cockpit (Flugzeugkanzel] in which a prisoner was seated. After this the cockpit was put under pressure. Rascher observed through a glass window. After that, the person on whom the experiment was performed was brought into Rascher's study where he asked him questions. At first these questions were answered in a dazed manner; until, after a certain period of time, full consciousness returned.
I did not see any other of Rascher's experiments. Neither did I select the prostitutes for his cooling experiments (Unterkeuhlversuche]. The prostitutes probably came from Ravensrueck.
3. Klauberg (or Glauberg). I made his acquaintance during supper at the Fuehrerheim Auschwitz. He was introduced to me
and I did not talk with him about his experiments. I was not present at the planning of the experiments, but I had already heard, through Gluecks, that Klauberg was interested in sterilization. I declined Klauberg's invitation to watch this experiment.
4. Sievers (Ahnenerbe). I heard about this for the first time subsequent to Sievers' visit to me in Berlin when the experiments, apparently, were concluded already, because he came to me in order to find out about a production possibility (equipment for manufacturing). I gave him the name of Deutsche Heilmittel GMBH in Prague, which belonged to the Deutschen Wirtschaftsbetrieben under the administration of Oberfuehrer Baier of my staff. I referred Sievers to him. The compound was subsequently produced in Schlachters (Schwarzweld).
Sievers told me the following: "The 'Ahnenerbe,' which was managed by Sievers, had developed, by order of Himmler, a compound which causes the blood to coagulate quickly. This was tremendously important for our combat troops, since it prevented fast bleeding. The experiments in Dachau, during which a prisoner was shot, had proved that. A prisoner at Dachau, who was an expert in this matter, had an important part in the discovery of the compound.”
5. Heissmeyer. The Chief physician assigned to the hospitals at Hohenlychen received Himmler's permission to conduct experiments in the field of tuberculosis. I referred him to Gluecks, who put the necessary individuals for these experiments at his disposal. This concerns about ten orphans who probably came from Auschwitz. The experiments took place in Neuengamme. Later on, I saw a report for Himmler on these experiments, but its language was so scientific that I didn't understand it.
6. Madaus. Worked in Radebeul on a compound for sterilization for which he needed coladium [schweigrohr]. Since this plant grows predominantly in North America, I was ordered by Himmler to take care of its cultivation in Germany. Himmler probably then thought of the Division for Pharmaceutical herbs of the botanical garden in Dachau, which was under my jurisdiction. The contact with Madaus was initiated through the physician assigned to the Inspektion Lolling. Since Madaus, who was represented by Dr. Koch, believed Dachau unsuitable, he invited us to visit Radebeul and to begin the cultivation there. During the visit we were shown the site and we saw experiments performed on animals in the laboratory. I am not sure if these experiments were undertaken with coladium [schweigrohr], but I presume that. Since a hothouse was necessary for the cultivation of the plant, Dr. Koch asked for assistance in the procurement. I prom
ised him to take this matter up with Himmler, who okayed it. Since all details were taken care of by Lolling from then on, I do not know to what extent the cultivation of the plant was successful, and if mass production of the compound was ever accomplished, and if experiments were ever undertaken on human beings.
7. Lost. I do not remember if these experiments were ever conducted at all, because other agencies were also utilized for such experiments; but, naturally, it is possible. I do not know if the I.G. Farben Plant at Dyrrenfurt, near Breslau, filled the bombs, which I have seen there, with a gas manufactured in Lost. Dr. Ambros had invited me to inspect this plant.
Conclusion To the best of my ability I tried to depict what has remained in my memory. I did not have any direct knowledge of most of the experiments. The prisoners who were used for them appeared in Lolling's monthly report with one number and were distributed among 40 experiments. I had that determined in 1944 by Lolling; if I am not wrong, about 350 to 400 prisoners were detailed at that time. I also tried to decrease that number, mainly, I confess, in order to make the prisoners available for work details, and this caused Himmler's intervention as for instance, in the case of Schilling who then ordered the detail impersonally.
My personal sentiment concerning medical experiments on living human beings is the same as that of each civilized person. But, as a layman, I have not understood the extent and degree of danger of these experiments. Deep inside of me I resented Himmler's methods.
/s/ OSWALD POHL
Oswald Pohl Sworn to and signed before me this 23rd of June 1946 in Nurnberg, Germany.
s/ WALTER H. RAPP
Walter H. Rapp U.S.Civ. D-416387
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 085
Berlin 9.2.42. G/R/2 page 1.
[in ink] Secret
Dear Comrade Brandt:
“Prof. Dr. HIRT's report, which you requested in your letter of 29/12/41—Journal No. AR/493/37, is submitted in the enclosure. I was not able to send it to you before because Prof. HIRT took ill some time later. He was stricken by bleedings of the lung (diagnosis: "Cyst-lung")—at least it is not TB. In addition he was afflicted by a weakening of the systemic circulation. At the present time he is still in the hospital but hopes that the doctor will release him in the near future so that he will be able to resume his work, at least to a small extent. Because of this Prof. HIRT was merely able to write a preliminary report which, however, I should like to submit to you. The report concerns
(1) his research in the field of the Intravitalmikroskopie (microscoping living organs), the discovery of a new method of examination, and the construction of a new research microscope.
(2) his proposal for securing skulls of Jewish-Bolshevik Commissars.”
Some special copies were enclosed as a supplement to the report (1) among which the two articles in the Zeiss-Nachriten No 10 (second series) and No 1-5 (third series) make possible the quickest orientation whereas the other publications are complicated individual scientific work.
Yours [signature illegible)
“SUBJECT: Securing skulls of Jewish-Bolshevik Commissars for the purpose of scientific research at the Reichsuniversitaet Strassburg.
We have a nearly complete collection of skulls of all races and peoples at our disposal. Of the Jewish race, however, only very few specimens of skulls are available with the result that it is impossible to arrive at precise conclusions from examining them. The war in the East now presents us with the opportunity to overcome this deficiency. By procuring the skulls of the Jewish-Bolshevik Commissars, who represent the prototype of the repulsive, but characteristic subhuman, we have the chance now to obtain a palpable, scientific document.
The best, practical method for obtaining and collecting this skull material could be handled by directing the Wehrmacht to turn over alive all captured Jewish-Bolshevik Commissars to the Feld