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for the 4 Year Plan and the tasks of the Governor General “to obtain from the economy of the Government-General all that is best and useful for the Reich”; on the numerous trains of Jews and Poles which had arrived since the 1st of December from the re-annexed territories, and that these transportations would continue—according to Obergruppenfuehrer SS Krueger—till the middle of December; the issue of supplementary order extending labour recruitment to persons of the age of 14 to 18 years.

On 21st April 1940 the defendant took part in the conference at which measures for forced deportation of Polish workers to Germany were elaborated. (USSR-223). On 16 May 1940 the defendant participated in the elaboration of the AB operation, which was nothing but a plan of wilful mass extermination of the Polish intelligensia.

In connection with the appointment of Seyss-Inquart as Reichskommissar for the Netherlands, Frank and his worthy deputy exchanged farewell speeches:

“I am exceedingly glad”, said Frank, “to assure you that the memory of your work in the Government General will live forever when the future world Reich of the German nation will be created.

“I have”, Seyss-Inquart replied, “learned much here above all about the initiative and firm leadership of the kind I saw in my friend, Dr. Frank.

“All my thoughts are connected with the East. In the East we have a National Socialist mission, in the West we have functions."

The function of Seyss-Inquart in the West, as the functions of other Reich ministers and Kommissars in all territories occupied by the Germans, are well known. It was the function of henchman and plunderer.

My colleagues have given the details about the criminal part played by Seyss-Inquart when annexing Austria and realizing other aggressive plans of the Hitlerite conspiracy; they have clearly shown how Seyss-Inquart applied in the Netherlands the sanguinary experiment, learned by him whilst collaborating with Frank in Poland. For this reason I may fully support the charges against Seyss-Inquart as they are formulated in the Indictment.

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VON PAPEN. As early as 1932, while still Reichschancellor of the German republic, the defendant Franz von Papen actively contributed to the development of the Fascist movement in Germany. Papen rescinded the decree of his predecessor Bruening prohibiting the activities of the SA storm units. It was he who overthrew the

Braun-Severing social-democratic government in Prussia. These measures strengthened greatly the position of the Fascists and contributed to their accession to power. In this manner Papen cleared the way for Hitler. Having secured the power for the Nazis, Papen himself assumed the post of Vice-Chancellor in Hitler's cabinet. In this capacity von Papen participated in the elaboration and the promulgation of a series of legislative acts which aimed at the consolidation of German Fascism. And later on, during the course of many years, and until the collapse of Hitlerite Germany, von Papen remained true to his Fascist friends and participated to the utmost of his abilities in the realization of the criminal conspiracy.

The defendant von Papen is attempting now to explain away his role in the development of the Nazi movement and in Hitler's rise to power by the political situation of the country which, according to him, made Hitler's accession to power unavoidable. The real motives which guided von Papen are that actually he himself was a convinced Fascist devoted to Hitler.

Speaking at Essen on the 2 November 1933, during the election campaign Papen declared:

“From the time that destiny called upon me to become the pioneer of the national reawakening and rebirth of our Fatherland, I strove with all my might to support the work of the National Socialist movement and all of its leaders. Just as I pronounced myself, when I became chancellor, for paving the way for the young shock movement of liberation, just as on the 30th January I was chosen by a merciful providence to transfer the power to the hands of our Chancellor and Fuehrer, so today I felt it incumbent upon me to tell the German nation and all those who have kept their trust in me; merciful God has blessed Germany by giving her, in the days of deep distress, a leader with the reliable intuition of a statesman, who will lead her through all misfortunes and weaknesses, through all crisis and dangers to a happy future.”

The International Military Tribunal will appreciate to the full the criminal activity of the Defendant von Papen, who played a decisive part in the seizure of power by Hitler and, in doing so, contributed to the creation of the dark powers of Nazism who brought sanguinary wars on the world and caused innumerable calamities.

SPEER Long before the Nazi came to power the architect, Albert Speer, was a personal friend of the architect's draftsman, Hitler and remained one till the end. Not only common professional interests but political interests brought them together. Speer began his

career in 1932 with the reconstruction of the “Brown House”, the headquarters of NSDAP in Berlin, and 10 years later he was at the head of all the military constructions and war production in Fascist Germany. Starting with the construction of the Reichs “Parteitag”, Speer ended by setting up the “Atlantic Wall”. Speer held an important post in the government and military machinery of Hitler's Germany and played a direct and active part in planning and bringing into effect the criminal conspiracy.

What is Speer's "line of defense" at the trial? Speer presents his case in the following way: he was pressed upon by Hitler to take on the post of minister; he was a close friend of Hitler's, but he knew nothing about his plans; he was a member of the Nazi Party for 14 years, but he stood far from politics and had never even read "Mein Kampf". It is true that upon being given the lie Speer confessed that he had lied during his preliminary interrogation. Speer lied when he denied that he had never belonged to the SA, and then to the SS. The Tribunal possesses the original file of the SS man Albert Speer, who belonged to the personal staff of the SS Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler. (3568-PS, USA 575)

Speer held also a rather high rank in the Nazi party. In the party chancellery he was delegate for all technical problems, he headed the chief technical administration of the party, he directed the union of German National Socialist technicians, he was plenipotentiary on the Staff of Rudolf Hess, and a leader of one of the major German Labor Front organizations.

After all this, can Speer's declaration that he was a political specialist be taken into consideration? In reality, as a close collaborator of Hitler, Hess, Ley, and Goering, he directed the German technique not only as Reichsminister, but also as a Nazi political leader.

Upon succeeding to Todt, Speer, as he expressed himself in his speech before the Gauleiters, devoted himself completely to the solution of war problems. (1435-PS) By means of the pitiless exploitations of the population in the occupied territories and of the prisoners of war of the allied countries, at the expense of the health and lives of hundreds of thousands of people, Speer increased the production of armament and ammunition for the German army. By plundering the raw materials and other resources of the occupied territories, Speer increased the war potential of Hitler's Germany. His powers grew with every month of the

By Hitler's decree of 2 September 1943, Speer became plenipotentiary and responsible for the supply of raw materials, for the direction and production of war industry. He was even commissioned to regulate the turnover of commodities and by

war.

Hitler's decree of August 24, 1944, Speer was practically made dictator of all German authorities in Germany as well as in the occupied territories whose activity was in any way connected with the strengthening of German military power. And when the Fascist flyers bombed peaceful towns and villages, killing women, old men, and children, when the German artillery shelled Leningrad with heavy artillery, when the Hitlerlite pirates sank hospital ships, when the “V” bombs destroyed towns in England, all this was as a result of Speer's activity. Under his leadership, the production of gas and of other means of chemical warfare was widely increased. The defendant himself, when interrogated by Justice Jackson at the trial, confessed three factories were turning out products for chemical warfare and that they were working at full speed till November 1944.

Speer not only knew of the methods used by Sauckel for deporting to slave labor the populations of the occupied territories, but he himself took part, together with Sauckel, in conferences with Hitler and on the "Central Planning Board”, where decisions were taken to deport millions of people to Germany from the occupied territories. (1292-PS, USA 225)

Speer kept up a close contact with Himmler; he received from Himmler prisoners for work in war factories; branches of concentration camps were organized in many factories subordinated to Speer; in recognition of Himmler's services Speer supplied the SS with experienced specialist and with supplementary war equipment.

Speer has said a lot here about his having sharply criticized Hitler's environment, that he had allegedly had very serious dissensions with Hitler, and that in his letter to Hitler he had written about the uselessness of continuing the war. When the representative of the Soviet Prosecution asked Speer which of the persons close to Hitler he had criticized and in what connection, the defendant answered: "I shall not tell you”. It is quite evident that Speer not only did not want, but could not tell it, for the simple reason that he had never criticized anyone who was close to Hitler. Moreover, he could not criticize them as he was a convinced Nazi himself and belonged to this close environment. As to the socalled "serious dissensions”, they began as Speer admitted, when it became clear to him that Germany had lost the war. Speer's letters to Hitler are dated March 1945. At that time Speer could, without great risk, depict Germany's hopeless condition. It was apparent to everyone and was no longer a subject of discussion. And it was not by accident that Hitler appointed precisely Speer, on 30 March 1945, to direct measures for the total destruction

of the industrial enterprises, by obliging all Party, State, and military offices to render him extensive help.

That is the true picture of the defendant Speer and the real part played by him in the crimes committed by Hitler's gang.

VON NEURATH Constantine von Neurath's part in the consolidation of the Nazi conspirators, power and in the preparation and realization of aggressive plans is a remarkable one.

Over a period of many years, every time that traces had to be covered up, that acts of aggression were to be veiled by diplomatic manipulations, Neurath, Nazi diplomat and SS general, came to the help of the Hitlerites, bringing them his longstanding experience of world affairs.

I will recall the official evaluation of Neurath's activity, as it appeared in all the newspapers of Fascist Germany on the 2nd of February 1943 (USSR-485): "The departure from the Geneva disarmament conference on the 14th October 1933, the return of the Saar territory, and the proclamation and denunciation of the Locarno Treaty will rank among the most outstanding political events since the coming to power of the Nazi regime. In these, Baron von Neurath played a decisive part and his name will always be connected with them.”

In his capacity of Reich protector of Bohemia and Moravia, Neurath was to the Nazi conspirators those so-called “firm and reliable hands” of which General Frederici wrote in his memorandum, and which were to turn the Czechoslovak republic into an "indissoluble part of Germany". In order to attain that object, Neurath established the notorious "new order", the nature of which is now known to all and sundry.

Neurath attempted to assert, here, that all the atrocities were committed by the police and Gestapo, upon Himmler's direct order, and that he knew nothing of them. It is quite understandable that Neurath should say so, but one can hardly agree with him. Interrogated on the 7 March 1946, Karl Frank testified that Neurath received regularly the reports of the Chief of Security Police, as well as those of Frank himself, regarding the "most important events in the Protectorate pertaining to the Security Police”. He stated also that it was possible for Neurath to issue directives to the Gestapo, and that he did indeed do so; while, as far as the SD was concerned, his rights were still more vast depending in no way upon the consent of the Main Reich Security Office (USSR-494).

I wish also to recall to your memory, paragraphs 11, 13, and 14 of the order issued on 1 September 1939 by the Reich Defense

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