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students and talent promotion scheme; this is one of the points where we should get active. To get hold of, influence and obligate those holding intellectual key-positions (i.e. college professors, associations of lawyers, teachers, students, artists) is a task which has direct political significance and effects, from the press, the propaganda, and particularly the security points of view. The closest co-operation has been maintained from the very start with the security-service.
Accordingly the task of the department for cultural policy [Referat Kulturpolitik] has nothing to do with the automatic cultural work of German civilian corporations, like the German Science Institute [Deutsches Wissenschaftliches Institut], the German Academy [Deutsche Akademie), the Rosenberg Office [Amt Rosenberg], the strength-through-joy-cultural groups, the armed forcescourses, the college-weeks etc. The section for cultural policy [Amt Kulturpolitik] is an office charged by the Waffen-SS with the supervision of the foreign organizations it had created in Flanders and Wallonia. The task of the Flanders outpost of the Germanic scientific mission [department for cultural policy] consists in active international pioneering work on a Germanic basis, making use of the seemingly politically neutral weapon of science, of personal influence and of press-methods, which must be specially developed.
PARTIAL TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1764-PS
Ambassador Hemmen: [P.71
Things are quite different however with a kind of economic question which developed in the past year into a serious political burden: the labor commitment for Germany.
It began with a voluntary recruitment of laborers which netted to the end of 1942, 400,000 men. In the first half of 1943, two additional voluntary actions for 250,000 men each were undertaken, of which the first granting at the same time all advantages of the “releve,” i.e. the furloughing of PW's at the ratio of 1:3 or granting of the labor charter brought in some 200,000 men, whilst the second action could only be executed under application of the new labor service Law, that is by force, and brought in 122,000 men only.
Beginning July 1943 i.e. after the betrayal by Italy it was then no longer possible to bring in more than 44,600 men of the 900,000 men of 3 annual classes covered by the law. Therefore, the ac
tion was halted in October and France was granted a rest period of 3 months in preparation for a new conscription for the year 1944. At the visit of Gauleiter Sauckel in January of this year, it was found however that Laval had made no preparation for a new action whatsoever. On the contrary the opinion that additional labor drafting need no longer be counted on could gain the ascendancy in France in the meantime. Characteristic in this connection is also the fact that Laval in the transformation of the government demanded by him since December has delayed up to now the appointment of a minister for labor in spite of all efforts and assistance of the embassy.
As the total result of the Sauckel-Action all together 818,000 persons, men predominatingly have gone to Germany only 168,000 of them on the basis of the Labor Service Law. Of these, there were only 420,000 left there at the end of January 1944. There is no doubt that the same “Sauckel" sounds today pretty bad to French ears. The mere announcement in the press of an impending visit of the Gauleiter is sufficient for one to see for days hundreds of young people hurrying to the various Paris stations with their little suitcases.
It is likewise certain that, alongside the development of the military and political situation since July 1943 and the irresponsible political inactivity of Laval, the question of labor commitment is responsible for the enormous increase of terror acts, sabotage, the insecurity of traffic and the resistance movement in general. What the propaganda, made with greatest emphasis by the Free French and the Western Powers, was unable to do, to cause the French laborer to stop working and to sabotage the armament works working for Germany—the transport of skilled laborers and juveniles to the Reich, expecially after legal and police force was employed by the French Government for this purpose, caused hundreds of thousands to quit their safe place of work, to place themselves at disposal of terror groups and the secret army and thus to take up the battle against order, against the German occupation force and sharper yet against their own compatriots collaborating with us.
In order to stop these grave consequences of the labor commitment in the future and to obtain the return of the fugitive laborers from the marquis, the French Government in its negotiations with Gauleiter Sauckel has attempted again and again to bring about a change in the sense that laborers should be committed, even if in more increased measure than before, in France itself. The new armament and storage program also served this purpose. Serving the same purpose was also the designation of some 6,200
enterprises as S-enterprises, already shortly afterwards, to be sure a "run" of laborers began to these enterprises. Gauleiter Sauckel must rightly fear that these enterprises soon will be blown up excessively, because in them, the laborers seek shelter from shipment to Germany.
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1776-PS
Chief of the Wehrmacht; General Staff
30 June 1940
The Continuation of the War Against England
If political means will be without results England's will to resist will have to be broken by force.
(a) By making war against the English mother country.
This includes war on the high sea and from the air against all shipments to and from England, the first against the English Airforce and all economic resources important to her war effort.
(2) Terror Attacks against English centers of population.
(3) A Landing of troops with the objective of occupying England.
Germany's final victory also over England is only a question of time. Hostile operational attacks of great strength are no longer possible. Germany, therefore, can choose a form of warfare which husbands her own strength and avoids risks.
The fight against the English Airforce must have top priority in order to lessen the destruction of bases essential to our war effort such finally to prevent it altogether. In order to achieve this the English Airforce must be brought down within the effective operational zone of our fighter planes or at least forced to retreat to its basis in Central England. Attempt to force it down in that region will hardly be successful.
With such actions, nevertheless a prerequisite is created for destroying all of Southern England with its armament factories and for lessening the effectiveness of English bombers against Western Germany. If we succeed in eliminating the aviation factories concentrated around London and Birmingham the English Airforce can no longer replace its losses. In such a case England would have reached the limit of its capabilities of action against Germany, since the blockade by the English fleet is of no decisive importance to us.
The first and most important objective in our war against Eng
land is to be supplemented by a concurrent Attack against English storage facilities and shipping on the high sea and in ports.
Together with propaganda and temporary terror attacks—said to be reprisal actions—this increasing weakening of English food supply will paralyze the will of her people to resist and finally break and thus force its government to capitulate.
A landing in England can only be contemplated after Germany has gained control of the air.
A landing in England, therefore, should not have as its objective the military conquest of the island an objective which can be obtained by the Luftwaffe and the German Navy. Its sole purpose should be to provide the coup de grace, if it should still be necessary, to a country whose war economy is already paralyzed and whose air force is no longer capable of action.
This situation will not occur before the end of August or the beginning of September.
We must count with an opposition of about 20 English divisions so that at least 30 German divisions will have to be embarked.
The invasion nevertheless must be prepared in all details as a last resort.
An operational plan for it and the necessary preparations therefore are to be presented separately.
Addition to (b).
The war against the British Empire can only be carried out through or by other countries which are interested in its falling apart and hope for a substantial part of the spoils. These countries are primarily Italy, Spain, Russia and Japan. To activate these countries is a question of state craft. The military support of Italy and Spain is possible in a limited way (e.g. to mine the Suez Canal or the conquest of Gibraltar).
Besides the Arabic countries can be assisted by offering them “Defensive Means”.
An Italian operation against the Suez Canal in conjunction with the conquest of Gibraltar thus sealing off the Mediterranean Sea, would be most effective.
In case Italy should intend to participate in the war against the British isles it can do so by employing its submarines based on the French coast or putting into action some of its fighter formations to be attached to the Luftwaffe. Elements of the Ground Forces are, from a purely military point of view, neither essential nor useful. The employment could only be a political gesture.
It is difficult to predict the time required for such operation.
Since England can no longer fight for victory but only for the preservation of its possessions and its world prestige, she should
according to all predictions, be inclined to make peace when she learns that she can still get it now at relatively little cost. Against a complete destruction England would fight to the bitter end.
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1849-PS
Subject: Memorandum on Reich Defence
(I) The tasks of the SA, as regards their part in the country's defense, are laid down as follows by the Reich Minister of Defense.
(a) Pre-military training following on youth fitness training.
(b) Training of those capable of bearing arms who are not included in the Armed Forces.
(c) The maintenance of the fitness for action of former soldiers, and of those who have been trained in SA Sports but have not yet served. (II) The tasks of Youth are briefly as follows:
Youth fitness training lasts until the end of the 17th year, thus
(a) Youth Sports (6-14).
Youth fitness training comes to an end with a performance test in cross-country sports. The Reich Youth Leader and the Reich Sports Commissar are responsible for running the cross country sports in accordance with the general directions of the Reich Minister of Defence—the training must be carried out unarmed. (III) The aims of pre-military training.
Pre-military training (SA sports) is given between the years of 18 and 20, thus
(a) Training in SA formations.
Completion of pre-military training (with award of SA-Sports badge) should be the precondition of entry into the Armed Forces.
As for the rest, however, men capable of bearing arms, of agegroups 21 to 26, should be instructed in SA-Sports, where this has not already been done, or where they have not been included in military service. Berlin, February 23rd, 1934.