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The increase of the contributions expressed in money values is greater than the increase in the quantities supplied, owing to the increased prices since 1940. Purchases on the black market are the most decisive factor in the excessive increase in values.
The additional contributions which are not balanced comprise above all booty goods and provision of billets. Also the contribution made by the PWs and civilian workers working in Germany appears only to the extent of the permitted transfer of wages in a balance based on values. The amount of additional contributions is considerable.
Balanced French contributions in millions of RM.
1940 3rd quarter
1941 1st quarter
1942 1st quarter
2. Employment of French Labor
There are no current employment statistics covering all branches of economy and all groups of employed. The total figure of the existing manpower therefore had to be worked out roughly from old data. This computation was limited to men between 18– 50 years of age, because this age group comes primarily into consideration for turning over to Germany. (It does not comprise the departments Nord and Pas de Calais.)
Of the number of French men, there were employed:
The number of workers employed directly for Germany is known only as far as some of the specified groups are concerned.
As far as the other groups go, estimates had to be made which are in general based on the ratio of the total output to what is used for German purposes. The number of workers employed indirectly for Germany could be estimated only roughly as a minimum figure, because the indirect efforts of an order are extraordinarily ramified and impossible to show in statistics.
It would in principle have to comprise all labor working for the maintenance of the living conditions (namely for feeding, clothing, heating, lighting, etc.) of the persons who work for German interests. Thus, for example, not only the feeding of the workers who are working directly for Germany but also the feeding of all those who are working indirectly for Germany has here to be regarded as an indirect contribution of agriculture. The number of the indirectly employed persons depends further on the quantity of goods which are considered necessary for the maintenance of the living conditions and working fitness of the persons who are working for Germany.
In order not to go too high, the estimate was limited to the first branches of the ramification, since to follow all the ramifications, with all their repercussions on other branches of economy, can
easily lead to an increase in the number of persons employed indirectly, which it would be hard to keep a check on and which would be like a snow ball. On principle, however it was assumed that in living conditions is included also the maintenance of the workers family.
3. Foreign Labor in the German Reich.according to nationalities
The Frenchmen employed within the Reich represented more than a quarter of all foreign male labor working in Germany in the autumn of 1943. They are thus the biggest group, more numerous than the Eastern workers and the Soviet Prisoners of War and larger than the Polish group.
Amongst the foreign female workers, the French women form the third largest group. Their number is however considerably smaller than those of Eastern and Polish women workers.
The employment of foreign Labor in German Economy
Including the prisoners of war turned into civilian workers, unemployed and persons of uncertain whereabouts.
4. The contribution of French agriculture
Among the manifold agricultural products that France is producing for German consumption, the following were the principal ones in 1942/43 according to their value in Reichsmarks.
Calculating the foodstuffs in terms of the value of cereals shows the great importance of the deliveries of cereals and meat. The French contribution to the German supplies of cereals for bread is illustrated in greater detail in illustration 6.
Apart from the direct obtainment for German purposes, further considerable qualities of agricultural products serve as food for the French people working directly or indirectly in the interests of Germany.
6. France's contribution to Germany's supply of cereals for bread
Before the war, French consumption had at its disposal, in addition to its own harvest, an import surplus.
Today France delivers for German purposes approximately 17 percent of the quantities available for consumption (Harvest excluding seeds and wastage) out of a harvest which is lower because of the war. The quantity remaining for supplying the French with cereals for bread amounted in the harvest year of 1942/43 to
approximately two thirds of the quantity available in 1935/38
on an average or
approximately half of that in 1938.
The quantity of cereals for bread delivered to Germany out of what was raised in France, comprised 46 percent of German imports. France is therefore by far Germany's most important supplier of cereals for bread.
Reckoned in terms of the normal consumer's bread ration,
The total quantity of cereals for bread raised by France represented in 1942/43 6.2 million yearly rations
The quantities delivered to the Reich 4.1 million yearly rations.
7. The contribution of the French forestry industry
The felling of timber of all kinds in France reached approximately 24 million sq. metres, in the last years, i.e. approximating the same quantity of timber as was cut down in the Reich proper before the war. The fellings for the Black market and for private
use in the country, for which statistics are not available, are not included in these figures. To this must be added the amount cut down for military purposes by units of the German Armed Forces and German authorities, which may be estimated for 1943 at between 300 000 and 400 000 sq. metres.
The French forest industry supplies approximately 80 percent of its production excluding firewood to the German war economy, directly and indirectly.
The main types delivered direct to Germany in quantities increasing year by year:
in 1,000 1943
The demands for direct German war requirements were fulfilled 100 percent, at the expense of French requirements which had to be satisfied with ever decreasing allocation quotas.
An extraordinarily high proportion of the quotas for French stove-timber requirements benefits the German War economy indirectly. The pit props, the sleepers allotted to the French railways and the solid fuel allotted to French transport are utilized to a very great extent in the German interests. In addition large quantities of cut timber and planks have been utilized for barrack building and for other German orders; also a large part of the packing-case wood, and the wood for paper and for tanning are used for German purposes.
8. The contribution of French Industrial economy
It is a particularly difficult problem to give statistically a conception of the contributions of French industry to German purposes. Estimates based on the industrial reports instituted on the German model-which actually do not extend to the production of the building industry, the food and luxury food industry, the air