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the rest of the Nation will be watched with considerable interest and will be followed by all law enforcement agencies because the work of this committee has

become very well known. Recently, you held hearings on the shipment of Mexican heroin that was coming into the city of Chicago. I want to compliment you on the results of those hearings. Because of the interest that you have shown and the momentum that came as a result of your hearings, we have been able to reduce substantially the amount of heroin available in the city of Chicago.

The results are very dramatic. I'm sure that you are familiar with them. And I'm sure it will be documented a little later by the members of our Chicago Police Department.

This reduction happened because Federal, State, and local agencies-rather than confronting each other, passing the buck, blaming each other-joined forces, put their shoulders behind the wheel, and worked cooperatively and effectively on this very important problem.

I think the lesson to be learned is that the time for confrontation has ended, and the time for cooperation has arrived. So it is significant and important that you have inspired this cooperative movement. I know that heroin and narcotics addiction and drug abuse are problems that are common not only in major urban areas, but also in suburban and rural areas. Indeed, it is a worldwide problem, as has been evidenced by the many hearings that you have had and the information you have gathered from around the world.

So this is something that the entire world is interested in. I want to commend and compliment the cooperation that has been demonstrated and the leadership that this committee has shown.

I particularly would like to compliment the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration and an outstanding Chicagoan who now leads that agency, Peter Bensinger. He has worked with you, and he has worked with all of the local law enforcement agencies, both State and local, here in Chicago and throughout the country.

I think that the cooperation shown by the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration and the Chicago Police Department should be a model for the rest of the Nation. This cooperation between these two agencies has led to some very recent successes which, I have been informed, will be revealed here this morning. They will be dramatic successes that will show what cooperation can do.

So on behalf of the citizens of the city of Chicago, I want to compliment all who have been instrumental in bringing about this success. Obviously, the media attention that has been focused on some of these specific problems has been a catalyst that has helped to bring the forces together.

In doing this, the media has had some of their finest hours. Rather than causing divisions between elements of our society, it helped join them together in a common cause which helped the public interest.

I think that we have witnessed the finest hour of our Federal, State, and local agencies, working with the media, to solve one of the most dreaded and difficult problems of modern times.

We also have to call attention to the problem that has developed. The members of the committee already mentioned it in the opening statements. And that is the problem of prescription drugs which can

be legally obtained. I am told that the most recent of these is a drug identical to Talwin. This has been abused because it is a substitute, I am told, for heroin.

When someone can get a legal drug from a prescription house through their doctors through legal channels which will have the substituting effect of an illegal drug like heroin, we have a most difficult problem on our hands. I'm sure that it will take all of the talent, ingenuity, and ability of this committee, its members, its staff, and all of the agencies working cooperatively to find a solution which will eliminate the abuses, but still allow these prescriptions to be available for their proper medical purposes.

The rapid growth of the use of Talwin demonstrates that the increased availability of this drug in our society can be channeled either for right or for wrong purposes. It is our function and duty to see that it is channeled into the proper purposes.

I believe that it is essential to continue the outstanding cooperation between Federal, State, and local governments which provides the initiative and the proper direction to stop this growth of the use of legal drugs for an illegal purpose.

As the mayor of the city of Chicago, I would like to reaffirm the city's commitment to curb drug abuse. I also want to assure this committee and the citizens, not only of the city of Chicago, but also of the entire Nation, that we will continue to cooperate with you in all of your endeavors to bring about an orderly and proper solution which will be in the public interest.

Thank you for this opportunity, and I would be pleased to answer any questions that you may have.

Mr. MURPHY. Thank you, Mr. Mayor, for a most warm and welcome statement.

I would just like for the record to show that one of the reasons that the tremendous cooperation between the Chicago Police Department and the DEA is due to your leadership. You have chosen to head the Chicago Police Department with young, aggressive policemen who are familiar with the ravages of drug abuse in the cities of our Nation, and who have cooperated with the Federal drug enforcement agencies.

And this cooperation is not evidenced in every city in the United States. We have found some cities where there have been some differences. But this is not the case in the city of Chicago. And a great deal of the credit for that is due to your leadership in selecting men who have no pride of authorship and who cooperate with the drug enforcement agencies.

And sometimes, I know, when you have two different police, local and Federal, that that cooperation isn't always present. But here in Chicago, we have a fine example of it. And no small measure of that is due to your leadership, sir.

Mr. BILANDIC. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I would like to add and emphasize that the occasions of differences, disputes, or disagreements between the Federal and local law enforcement agencies have been somewhat overstated, and I might say exaggerated.

If you just look at the recent record, you will see that the areas of cooperation have been really outstanding. I would like to point to the recent hostage situation on Michigan Avenue. The head of the FBI sent a letter to the citizens of the city of Chicago, complimenting the work of the Chicago Police Department on that effort. And I personally complimented the agent in charge, Otto, and his men, for the outstanding work they did at that time.

We had two Nazi incidents this summer which would have been difficult to handle in any city in the United States. We handled them very well thanks again to the cooperative efforts between Federal, State, and local agencies.

And then we had the 10th anniversary of the Yippies who came back to Chicago with a pledge to blow the town apart. And again, it was a cooperative effort that worked and worked well. I think this cooperative effort will be carried on in this area of drug abuse also.

I think the record showing that there is cooperation is ample. There is a desire to cooperate. There is a record of cooperation, and we will continue that fine record.

Mr. MURPHY. I am sure you will, Mr. Mayor.
Mrs. Collins ?
Mrs. COLLINS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Let me associate myself with your remarks, and I have no questions at this time.

Mr. MURPHY. Chief counsel !
Mr. NELLIS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Mayor, I thank you for your gracious and uplifting remarks. I would like to ask one question if I may, Mr. Chairman.

Can you see any role in the form of city ordinances that would help us in choking off the prescription racket that the doctors engage in, and as you know, some pharmacies are involved in? Is there something that can be done by local coordinators to help city and State law in that regard !

Mr. BILANDIC. I think any local ordinance would be a Band-Aid approach because the geographic area of the city of Chicago is so limited and our jurisdiction is so narrow; all someone would have to do is go to a neighboring suburban area to avoid the ordinance.

This is something that requires more than even State efforts. I think it has to be on a national basis and uniform. If there is anything that we could do to add a local ordinance to reinforce the Federal law so that there would be a two-count Federal and local violation, that would be a more appropriate local role than taking the leadership. Because if we assume leadership all we would do is chase somebody outside of Chicago.

But that doesn't mean that our citizens would not have access to these drugs. They would still be able to bring them into Chicago. And we wouldn't be solving anything.

Mr. NELLIS. Thank you, Mr. Mayor.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. MURPHY. Thank you again, Mr. Mayor.
Mr. BILANDIC. Thank you very much.
Mr. MURPHY. Appreciate your showing up with your busy schedule.
Mr. BILANDIC. Thank you.

Mr. MURPHY. The next witness is the chairman of the State judiciary committee, the Honorable Richard M. Daley.




Senator Daley. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I would like to thank the committee for the invitation to speak before you on an important problem that is facing our community and the State of Illinois.

We are here today to consider a relatively recent problem—the abuse of the prescription drug Talwin and, in particular, its use as a substitute for heroin. To say this is a recent problem is not to deny that it is a serious one. It is but another manifestation of the terrible problem of drug dependence and abuse confronting our Nation.

The many studies and the evidence accumulated point to these facts:
First, Talwin is being abused;
Second, it is serving as a heroin substitute;

And third, it is causing symptoms similar to those caused by heroin and morphine addiction. We have a problem in Chicago-Talwin dependency.

There is no reason to believe that the problem will remain unique to Chicago. Indeed, there are already signs of Talwin abuse throughout our country.

All this is not to deny that Talwin is a beneficial drug when properly used. But like all drugs, it can be misused. Its potential for abuse is great, probably nearly as great as heroin and morphine.

The question we must ask ourselves is: How can we permit the proper use of substances such as Talwin and at the same time crack down on their misuse?

The question is easy. The answer is not. In fact, I do not believe there is just one answer—there are many answers. The solution requires strong efforts at all levels in our communities, our cities and States, and throughout the Nation.

In my own legislative district on Chicago's South Side, we have had a drug abuse program for several years. The woman next to me, Pam Munizzi, worked with our community, with the various schools, the public and private schools, the various organizations such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the business community.

She went into the various large factories and banks and talked to their people who worked there, during their lunch hours. It was through her hard work and dedication that we have alerted many, many people in our community. We have visited every school each year on the drug abuse program.

The sophistication of the questions young people ask at these meetings is both distressing and encouraging. It is distressing because it shows that even grade school audiences are at least aware of drugs; drug abuse is not limited to adults.

At the same time, it is encouraging to hear their perceptive questioning, because it indicates that these adolescents are interested in learning about the problem of drug abuse and, for the most part, have open minds on the subject.

But neighborhood education, as important as it is, can be only part of the solution to the drug problem.

Efforts at the city level are elements of that solution through enforcement by the police of laws against drug abuse and through programs to assist our drug-dependent citizens. Chicago's programs in this respect have been admirable. However, the primary responsibility for drug control cannot rest with the Chicago Police Department. Really successful control can only occur at higher governmental levels.

Illinois, too, has worked hard to lessen the problem of drug abuse. The Illinois Dangerous Drugs Commission under the leadership of Tom Kirkpatrick recently amended its list of schedule II drugs to include Talwin.

Before this classification, Talwin had not even been a controlled substance. That was before its susceptibility to abuse was recognized. Our experience during the last few years here in Chicago points to this characteristic. I am proud that Illinois has taken necessary corrective steps now rather than later, when its illicit use becomes even more widespread.

I firmly believe that it is better to risk the chance of overclassification of a drug than to fail to clamp down on the misuse we already have seen. Tightening the controls on Talwin will restrict both the inappropriate prescribing and the use without prescriptions because it results in close monitoring of the distribution of supplies, stricter accounting, and tough criminal penalties for trafficking and abuse.

Curtailing questionable prescribing practices has ramifications for taxpayers of Illinois and throughout the Nation as well. It is now clear that the taxpayers are supporting patients' Talwin habits. Huge numbers of prescriptions for Talwin are being written and filled in some medical clinics in the Chicago area.

Some of these prescriptions are certainly proper. But investigations undertaken by the department of public aid indicates that there is widespread abuse of prescription-obtained Talwin.

Closer scrutiny by the department of public aid of reimbursement claims, coupled with the recent scheduling of Talwin, will help reduce abuse.

In this connection, I think it is appropriate for the Federal Food and Drug Administration to recognize the hazards of Talwin and curb its abuse accordingly by similarly controlling it.

I would like to expand my remarks beyond the classification and control of Talwin to the issue of the Federal Government's duty and responsibility to curb drug abuse. I suggest that its responsibility lies in four areas: education, restrictions on advertising, stricter regulation, and vigorous enforcement.

In our program in our legislative district, we have had a very hard time getting information in which people are likely to pay attention to. The Federal Government should prepare and distribute interesting, informative materials which vividly describe the real results of drug abuse, its agonies and loneliness, as well as its mental and physical destructiveness. This information should be updated frequently.

Through your efforts, Congressman Murphy, we have received a movie called Dead is Dead."

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