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8 6. Sentences are often untrue or fail to express our meaning unless the subject, verb, or object be modified by words which serve to limit its meaning.

Words that modify the meaning of a noun are called Adjectives; and such as modify the meaning of a verb are called Adverbs.

e.g. “Boys remain dunces” is a sentence that is not quite true; but there is no objection to the modified statement:

Some boys remain dunces, (or) Boys often remain dunces.

NOTE.—In tabulated analysis, adjectives serving to nouns, and adverbs serving to verbs, may be written smaller, and set half-way under the words which they modify. Thus :

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$ 7. When no single word will modify the meaning of another precisely as we wish, we use a preposition and a noun (88 17, 12), which together form a composite adjective or a composite adverb.

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8 8. In the further development of sentences, (a) Any noun may be substituted by a pronoun; e.g. Pharaoh pardoned the butler, but the baker he hanged. (1) Any noun may be modified by an adjective.

(c) Any verb, adjective, or adverb may be modified by an adverb.

$ 9. Sentences therefore exhibit two principal and two subordinate relations.

Principal. 1. The relation of the subject to the verb. 2. The relation of the object to the verb.

Subordinate. 1. The relation of the adjective to the noun.

2. The relation of the adverb to the verb, adjective, or adverb.

§ 10. Words are often put into a sentence without any grammatical relation, and are then said to be absolute; i.e. free, loose. (See $ 43.) c.9. The weather being fine, I shall go out.

To speak precisely, it cost thirty-five shillings.


Classification of Words.

[Note.—“Parts of speech" means classes of words.]

$ 11. Words are divided into eight classes, according to the purposes they serve in speech.

$ 12. Nouns stand as names.

Names that belong only to one thing are called Proper Nouns.

The names of things not real, but only imagined, are Abstract Nouns.

$ 13. Verbs make statements.
Verbs are divided thus (SS 3, 4, 5):


(Ordinary Intransitive

Copulative $ 14. Pronouns stand instead of nouns.

Some pronouns, beside standing for nouns, serve the purpose also of conjunctions ($ 18), and for that reason are called Conjunctive Pronouns (= Relative Pronouns).

§ 15. Adjectives describe the things of which nouns are the names.

Or otherwise: Adjectives express the qualities, number, or other distinction of the things represented by nouns.

$ 16. Adverbs modify the meaning of verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Or otherwise : Adverbs express the circumstances of Time, Place, Manner, Order, Degree, Cause, Probability, which may attend assertions or attributes.

$ 17. Prepositions connect nouns or pronouns with some other notional words, and show the relations between them.

NOTE.-It is difficult for children to understand the use of prepositions and conjunctions.

Here are two figures, of an index-hand and of a circle. Prepositions will express certain relations that there may be between

them; e.g.

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$ 18. “Conjunctions connect sentences; but the word 'and' sometimes connects words.” (Smith's Eng. Gram.)

$ 19. Interjections are incoherent or unconnected utterances.

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First statement or sentence, Charles is clever.
Second statement or sentence, Charles is diligent.

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