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Change of Words from one Class to


$ 20. One noun put before another becomes an adjective (as in mountain crag, London cries); but if the two are written together (boatman, walkingstick, chestnut), or with a hyphen between them (snowflake, writing-paper), the compound is considered as a single noun.

A noun or pronoun signifying an owner is in fact an adjective ($15): father's house, my hat.

$ 21. Certain verb-forms are used as nouns to stand as the subjects or objects of sentences, and others to serve the purpose of adjectives or adverbs.

Verbal Nouns. To see is to believe ; seeing is believing. I love to look on a scene like this.

Verbal Adjectives ( = Participles). A roaring lion. A broken stick.

Verbal Adverbs. She stoops to conquer. A trap de signed to catch a sunbeam.

$ 22. Adjectives become nouns when they are treated with inflexions (8 30) like nouns, or when they are modified by adjectives ;

e.g. Thousands mourn. The blind are happy. Adjectives are often used in poetry for adverbs :

Slow rises worth by poverty depressed.
A snake's small eye blinks dull and shy.

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$ 23. Prepositions become adverbs by omitting the noun or pronoun in composite adverbs (8 7), where the preposition expresses the relation of time or place.

We heard the waters rush past (i.e. past us).
The sun was sloping down (i.e. down the sky).

Beneath was spread, like a green sea,

The waveless plain of Lombardy (i.e. beneath me). Or: A noun significant of time or place will serve as an adverb without the preposition.

Day after day we stuck (i.e. through day after day).

Not a minute stopped or stayed he (i.e. during not a minute).

In each case it is best to supply the word understood. (See Adverbial Object, § 81.)

§ 24. According to the purpose it serves, any word usually in one particular class may belong to another

Adjective. A daily call.
Adverb He calls daily.
Noun. Many duilies are published at a penny
Adjective. I saw that man.
Pronoun I saw the man that came.
Conjunction You told me that you saw him.
Verb... noun But me no buts. (Shakspere.)
Adverb He walks but slowly.
Conjunction He walks, but he walks slowly.

In cases of difficulty it is good to try words of whose class you are sure, in place of those you are in doubt about.




Order of Words and Breviation of Sentences.

$ 25. The order of words in simple sentences is as follows, though elegance, point, or rhythm often displaces them.


(6) Adjectives, if single words, precede, or if composite ($ 7), follow their nouns.

(c) Adverbs are placed at the end of a sentence, or immediately before the words they qualify.

$ 26. The omission of words necessary to complete the grammatical relations (8 9) of the words expressed is called Ellipsis. Ellipsis of the Subject . (I) thank you. Go (thou) home! Object

Hé learns (lessons) rapidly.
Men must reap the things (which)

they sow.
Verb I walk quicker than he (walks).

He is taĪler than I (am tall).

Noun after adjective

St. Paul's (Church).
Ellipsis of the pronoun You go on before (us). (§ 23.)

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$ 27. Contracted Sentences.-If two or more simple sentences have a common part, the repeated part is omitted when the sentences are connected y one of the conjunctions--and, but, either...or, ither...nor, than.

EXAMPLE I. Sentences having a common subject.

Charles is clever. Charles is diligent. Contracted : Charles is clever and diligent. EXAMPLE II. Sentences having a common predicate.

Roses bloom in May. Tulips bloom in May. Contracted : Roses and tulips bloom in May.

EXAMPLE III. Sentences having a common object.

Boys will anticipate all that your busy pate hoarded with care.

Boys will lavish all that your busy pate hoarded with

Boys will dissipate all that your busy pate hoarded with care. Contracted : “Boys will anticipate,

Lavish, and dissipate
All that your busy pate

Hoarded with care."



Order of Proceeding in Analysing Simple


§ 28. (1) Rearrange inverted order, expand contractions, and supply ellipses.

(2) Find the verb, and place it. (3) Place the subject.

N.B. To find the subject, ask the question Who? or What? BEFORE the verb. The answer is the subject.

(4) Place the object, if there be one.

N.B. To find the object, ask the question Whom? or What ? AFTER the verb. The answer is the object.

(5) Place the adjectives, if there be any, that qualify the subject and object.

(6) Place the adverbs that qualify the verb.

N.B. Adverbs answer the questions How? When ? Where? and Why?

(7) Place, under the words they qualify, any other adjectives and adverbs there may be in the sentence.

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