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CHAPTER IV.

Order of Words and Breviation of Sentences.

§ 25. The order of words in simple sentences is as follows, though elegance, point, or rhythm often displaces them.

(a) I. SUBJECT; II. VERB; III. OBJECT.

(b) Adjectives, if single words, precede, or if composite (§ 7), follow their nouns.

(c) Adverbs are placed at the end of a sentence, or immediately before the words they qualify.

§ 26. The omission of words necessary to complete the grammatical relations (§ 9) of the words expressed is called Ellipsis.

Ellipsis of the Subject.

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(I) thank you. Go (thou) home! Object He learns (lessons) rapidly.

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Noun after

adjective
Ellipsis of the pronoun

Men must reap the things (which)
they sow.

I walk quicker than he (walks).
He is taller than I (am tall).

St. Paul's (Church).

You go on before (us). (§ 23.)

§ 27. Contracted Sentences. If two or more simple sentences have a common part, the repeated part is omitted when the sentences are connected by one of the conjunctions—and, but, either...or, neither...nor, than.

EXAMPLE I. Sentences having a common subject. Charles is clever. Charles is diligent.

Contracted: Charles is clever and diligent.

EXAMPLE II. Sentences having a common predicate. Roses bloom in May.

Tulips bloom in May.

Contracted: Roses and tulips bloom in May.

EXAMPLE III. Sentences having a common object.

Boys will anticipate all that your busy pate hoarded with care.

Boys will lavish all that your busy pate hoarded with

care.

Boys will dissipate all that your busy pate hoarded with care.

Contracted: "Boys will anticipate,

Lavish, and dissipate
All that your busy pate
Hoarded with care."

20 Order of Analysing Simple Sentences.

CHAPTER V.

Order of Proceeding in Analysing Simple Sentences.

§ 28. (1) Rearrange inverted order, expand contractions, and supply ellipses.

(2) Find the verb, and place it.

(3) Place the subject.

N.B. To find the subject, ask the question Who? or What? BEFORE the verb. The answer is the subject.

(4) Place the object, if there be one.

N.B. To find the object, ask the question Whom? or What? AFTER the verb. The answer is the object.

(5) Place the adjectives, if there be any, that qualify the subject and object.

(6) Place the adverbs that qualify the verb.

N.B. Adverbs answer the questions How? When? Where? and Why?

(7) Place, under the words they qualify, any other adjectives and adverbs there may be in the sentence.

PART II.

INFLEXION

(= THE CHANGES WHICH SOME WORDS UNDERGO TO EXPRESS CERTAIN GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS).

CHAPTER I.

Use of Inflexion and Compounding.

§ 29. Five of the eight classes of words (part I. chap. ii.) —viz., nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs are subject to inflexion.

§ 30. Nouns and pronouns have inflexions which express variations in Gender, Number, Person, and Case.

Verbs have inflexions for Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person.

Adjectives and adverbs are inflected for Degrees of Comparison.

§ 31. Prepositions and conjunctions have no inflexion. They express certain relations only between things and statements.

Interjections have no part in coherent speech, and are without change.

§ 32. For the purpose of varying the meanings of words, besides the method of inflexion there is another in very great use in English, called compounding.

e.g. mouse-trap, pitch-dark, back-bite. (§ 20.)

§ 33. When one part of a compound has lost the significance that it would have separately, and serves only to express some relation or condition of the word to which it is attached, the compound should be treated as a single word.

e.g. spoonful, have gone, was seen, laugh at.

§ 34. In English the relations of gender, voice, mood, tense, and degree of comparison are very often represented in compounds.

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