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Inflexion of the Noun.
[See $30. "Nouns are inflected in Gender, Number, Person, Case."] $35. Nouns are, with respect to gender:
(1) Masculine; e.g. man, lion.
(2) Feminine; e.g. woman, lioness.
(3) Common to both genders, 1 and 2; e.g. child, animal.
(4) Of neither gender, 1 nor 2; e.g. crowd, class.
§ 36. Distinction of gender is shown in three ways:
(c) Drop e or o in the ending, and add ess.
§ 37. Nouns are, with respect to number:
§ 38. To form the plurals of nouns.
I. The rule: Add s to the singular.
II. Five rules for exceptions:
(a) Add es when the noun ends in 8, x, z, ch (soft), sh, or o (the e serving in the last case to preserve the long sound of o).
(b) Change y into i, and add es, when the noun ends in y preceded by a consonant.
(c) Change f into v, and add es or s generally, when the noun ends in ƒ or fe.
(d) Change the vowel sound in these seven nouns : foot, tooth, goose, mouse, louse, man, woman.
(e) Add en to ox, childr, brethr.
III. Two rules for compound nouns :
(a) Add the sign of the plural to both in certain old compounds consisting of two nouns.
(b) Add the sign of the plural only to the noun in other compounds, and not to the part which serves as an adjective:
IV. Four classes of nouns peculiar :
(a) With two plurals; e.g. penny pence.
(b) With singular and plural alike; e.g. salmon.
V. Follow the rules of the languages from which they come, to form the plurals of foreign nouns.
$39. Table of singular and plural forms.
I. boy, boys; girl, girls; day, days; valley, valleys; &c.
II. (a) truss, trusses; box, boxes; church, churches; dish, dishes; potato, potatoes.
Exceptions: folios, cantos, grottos, seraglios, dominos, tyros, quartos, cuckoos, Hindoos, &c.
(b) Exception: flys (=coaches).
(c) leaf, leaves; thief, thieves; loaf, loaves; shelf, shelves; knife, knives; &c.
Exceptions: strifes, briefs, chiefs, dwarfs, staffs, griefs, cliffs, stuffs, &c.
III. (a) knight-templar, knights-templars; lord-justice, lordsjustices; lord-lieutenant, lords-lieutenants; mansinger, men-singers; woman-singer, women-singers; knight-errant, knights-errants; gentleman-usher, gentlemen-ushers; &c.
(b) court-martial, courts-martial; man-of-war, men-of-war; father-in-law, fathers-in-law; attorney-general, attorneys-general; chief-justice, chief-justices; &c. N.B. Norman, Normans, spoonfuls, handfuls, cupfuls.
IV. (a) penny, pennies, pence; brother, brothers, brethren index, indexes, indices; genius, genii, geniuses; die, dice, dies; pea, peas, pease; cloth, cloths, clothes; &c.
(b) salmon, trout, grouse, heathen, teal, deer, snipe, swine, &c.
(c) tongs, pincers, drawers, trowsers, scissors, pliers, snuffers, tweezers, shears, spectacles, bellows, ashes, molasses, thanks, mews, odds, &c.
V. Foreign nouns :
Latin. (1) Change um into a: addendum, addenda; memorandum, -a; effluvium, -a; datum, -a; stratum, -a; erratum, -a; animalculum, -a; &c.
(2) Change us into : radius, radii; magus, -i; terminus, -i; focus, -i; fungus, -i; genius, -i.
(3) Change a into a: minutia, minutiæ, &c.
(4) Change ix, ex, into ices: vortex, vortices; appendix, appendices; &c.
Greek. (1) (Latin Forms.) Change is into es: ellipsis, ellipses; oasis, -es; basis, -es; axis, -es; crisis, -es ; &c.
(2) Change on into a: automaton, automata; phenome-
monsieur, messieurs; beau, beaux; &c.
$ 40. Three Persons are distinguished in grammar. Pronouns of the First Person (I, we, &c.) designate the person himself who speaks; those of the Second Person (thou, you, &c.), the person to whom, and those of the Third Person (he, she, they, &c.), the person of whom, he speaks.
§ 41. Nouns and pronouns have three cases.
The Nominative Case is the case of the subject. (§ 2.)
The Objective Case is the case of the object. (§ 4.)
(N.B. The object follows the verb, and is the name of that which receives the action expressed by the verb.)
The Possessive Case ascribes ownership. The possessive case of nouns is always shown by a certain mark-'s.
$42. The nominative and objective cases are not distinguished by inflexion, but by position with regard to the verb. The nominative goes before the verb, the objective after it; e.g.—