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$ 39. Table of singular and plural forms.

I. boy, boys; girl, girls; day, days; valley, valleys ; &c. II. (a) truss, trusses ; box, boxes ; church, churches ; dish,

dishes ; potato, potatoes. Ecceptions : folios, cantos, grottos, seraglios, dominos,

tyros, quartos, cuckoos, Hindoos, &c. (6) Exception: flys (=coaches). (c) leaf, leaves; thief, thieves; loaf, loaves; shelf, shelves;

knife, knives ; &c. Exceptions : strifes, briefs, chiefs, dwarfs, staffs, griefs,

Cliffs, stuffs, &c. III. (a) knight-templar, knights-templars ; lord-justice, lordsjustices ; lord-lieutenant, lords-lieutenants; man

; singer, men-singers; woman-singer, women-singers; knight-errant, knights-errants ; gentleman-usher,

gentlemen-ushers ; &c. (6) court-martial, courts-martial; man-of-war, men-of-war;

father-in-law, fathers-in-law; attorney-general,

attorneys-general; chief-justice, chief-justices ; &c.

N.B. Norman, Normans, spoonfuls, handfuls, cupfuls. IV. (a) penny, pennies, pence; brother, brothers, brethren ;

index, indexes, indices ; genius, genii, geniuses ; die, dice, dies; pea, peas, pease; cloth, cloths,

clothes ; &c. (6) salmon, trout, grouse, heathen, teal, deer, snipe,

swine, &c.

(c) tongs, pincers, drawers, trowsers, scissors, pliers, snuffers,

tweezers, shears, spectacles, bellows, ashes, molasses,

thanks, mews, odds, &c. V. Foreign nouns : Latin. (1) Change, um into a: addendum, addenda ; memo

randum, -a ; effluvium, -a; datum, -a; stratum,

-a ; erratum, -a ; animalculum, -a ; &c. (2) Change us into i : radius, radii ; magus, -i; terminus,

-i; focus, -i; fungus, -i; genius, -i. (3) Change a into æe : minutia, minutiæ, &c. (4) Change ix, ex, into ices: vortex, vortices; appendix,

appendices ; &c.

Greek. (1) (Latin Forms.) Change is into es : ellipsis, ellipses ;

oasis, -es; basis, -es; axis, -es; crisis, -es ; &c. (2) Change on into a: automaton, automata ; phenome

non, -a ; criterion, -a ; &c.
French. monsieur, messieurs ; beau, beaux ; &c.
Italian bandit, banditti ; dilettante, dilettanti ; &c.
Hebrew. seraph, seraphim ; cherub, cherubim ; &c.

$ 40. Three Persons are distinguished in grammar. Pronouns of the First Person (1, we, &c.) designate the person himself who speaks; those of the Second Person (thou, you, &c.), the person to whom, and those of the Third Person (he, she, they, &c.), the person of whom, he speaks.

§ 41. Nouns and pronouns have three cases.

The Nominative Case is the case of the subject. (S 2.)

The Objective Case is the case of the object. (8 4.)

(N.B. The object follows the verb, and is the name of that which receives the action expressed by the verb.)

The Possessive Case ascribes ownership. The possessive case of nouns is always shown by a certain mark—'s.

$ 42. The nominative and objective cases are not distinguished by inflexion, but by position with regard to the verb. The nominative goes before the verb, the objective after it; e.g.

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$ 43. Nouns or pronouns in absolute clauses (8 10) are said to be in the nominative case, in English; and when a noun or pronoun (not within the construction of the sentence) names the person or thing addressed, it is said to be in the Vocative Case. e.g. The weather being fine, I shall go out.

Say, father, say if yet my task is done. “ Weather” is said to be in the Nominative Absolute, and “father” in the Vocative, or Nominative of Address.

$ 44. To put a noun (singular or plural) in the possessive case, add 's.

Though if the word already ends in s, or the sound of s, and the adding of another s would make an awkward sound, add only the '

e.g. For conscience sake. Compounds must have the sign of the possessive case put at the end.

e.g. The lord-lieutenant's hat.

At Smith the bookseller's shop.

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Other Relative Pronouns not inflected: That, what (=that which).

The Reflexive Pronouns (i.e. such as are objects of transitive verbs, and yet represent the same person or thing as the nominative case) are formed by adding self to my, thy, him, her, it, one; and selves to our,

your, them.

These forms-myself, thyself, &c.—are not always reflexive. They are often simply used for emphasis.

e.g. He, himself, did so.

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