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Indirect Objects.

$ 79. Nouns and pronouns that follow verbs, and are not immediately governed by them (SS 4, 41), are said to be indirect or remote objects. Of these there are four kinds.

$ 80. Verbs of giving, telling, promising, &c., are said to take two objects, one of the person, and another of the thing. e.g. He paid me a shilling.

He convinced me that I was wrong. ($ 90.) The person to or for whom something is done is called the Dative Object.

[In a different arrangement, most of such sentences require the preposition to (e.g. He paid a shilling to me); and many teachers would describe what are here called dative objects simply as or pronouns in the objective case governed by the preposition to ( 68), understood.]

$ 81. Nouns signifying time or place, and used after verbs with the function of adverbs, are called Adverbial Objects. e.g. He moored his boat a mile below the place.

They stayed an hour with us. [Again, some teachers prefer to say that such nouns are governed by preposition understood.

e.g. He moored his boat (at) a mile below the place.

They stayed (during) an hour with us.]


$ 82. Transitive verbs with the notion of making, appointing, &c., have a second object called Factitive; i.e. expressing the effect of the action.

e.g. The Romans called him friend.

The people proclaimed him king.
More frequently adjectives are used factitively.

e.g. He wiped his hands dry.

$ 83. Intransitive verbs are frequently followed by nouns of kindred meaning, which they govern as Cognate Objects. e.g. “Let me die the death of the righteous.

“How high a pitch his resolution soars. These Cognate Objects are to be distinguished from objects following intransitive verbs used in a causal


e.g. Boys fly kites ( = Boys make kites fly).

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$ 84. Indirect objects are unchanged in their relations when sentences are changed into the passive voice. They should never be made agents or nominatives in the passive voice. eg. He paid me a shilling = A shilling was paid me by

him; not, I was paid a shilling by him. He peeled me an apple = An apple was peeled for me

by him; not, I was peeled an apple. If verbs be said to govern remote objects, it must be allowed that these objects are still governed by the verb, though it be in the passive voice.


The Complex Sentence with the Indicative


$ 85. A sentence having one or more subordinate sentences is called a Complex Sentence.

$ 86. Subordinate sentences serve as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

$ 87. A sentence that qualifies or limits a noun or pronoun is called an Adjective Sentence.

c.g. (a) They suffer most who utter least.

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(b) The evil that men do lives after them.

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(c) An ass will with his long ears fray

The flies, that tickle him, away.





will fray
| with ears


| An


that tickle him

8 88. A sentence that limits a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is an Adverbial Sentence.

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(6) She stood so still that the quick water-hen noted

her not.





| still

that the quick water-hen noted her not)

In false conditional sentences (i.e. conditional sentences involving no future tense) the condition is an Adverbial Sentence.

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(6) If I stand here, I saw him ( = Assuredly I saw him).

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$ 89. The nominative and infinitive absolute may each be brought into construction by converting it into an adverbial sentence.

(a) The weather being fine, I shall go out. · When the weather is fine

I shall out.

go If the weather is fine



(6) To speak truly, there were only twenty persons

= If one should speak truly, he would say there

were only twenty present.
When one speaks truly, he says there were

only twenty present.

or -

890. A sentence that stands as subject or object of a verb is a Noun Sentence.

(a) The Athenians understand what is good.

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(6) It is an error to suppose that the English gentry

were lodged in well-sized houses.




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| an

It = to suppose that the

English gentry were
lodged in well-sized

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