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The Complex Sentence with the Indicative Mood.

§85. A sentence having one or more subordinate sentences is called a Complex Sentence.

$86. Subordinate sentences serve as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

$87. A sentence that qualifies or limits a noun or pronoun is called an Adjective Sentence.

e.g. (a) They suffer most who utter least.

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(b) The evil that men do lives after them.

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(c) An ass will with his long ears fray
The flies, that tickle him, away.

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$88. A sentence that limits a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is an Adverbial Sentence.

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(b) She stood so still that the quick water-hen noted

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In false conditional sentences (i.e. conditional sentences involving no future tense) the condition is an Adverbial Sentence.

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(b) If I stand here, I saw him (= Assuredly I saw him).

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$ 89. The nominative and infinitive absolute may each be brought into construction by converting it into an adverbial sentence.

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(b) To speak truly, there were only twenty persons present.

= If one should speak truly, he would say there were only twenty present.

or = When one speaks truly, he says there were only twenty present.

§ 90. A sentence that stands as subject or object of a verb is a Noun Sentence.

(a) The Athenians understand what is good.

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(b) It is an error to suppose that the English gentry were lodged in well-sized houses.

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The Complex Sentence with the Subjunctive Mood (= subjoined mood).

§ 91. Subordinate sentences with the verb in the subjunctive mood (§§ 50, 92) are used in three ways: (1) AS NOUN-SENTENCES, subjects or objects of a verb.

e.g. (a) It is necessary that he should know it.

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(2) AS ADVERBIAL-SENTENCES of reason or purpose.

(a) Eat that thou mayest live.

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In all cases the Subjunctive of Purpose is equivalent to an adverbial infinitive.

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(3) IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, where the condition is always an adverbial limitation of the consequent.

e.g. (a) "Could I fly, I'd fly with thee."

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(b) "Had you seen but his look, you'd have sworn on a book

He'd have conquered a whole armada."

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§ 92. The subjunctive mood makes statements not of fact, but of mental conception. It always regards the future, and uses past tenses only (in English of today), except in the subjunctive of purpose. [§ 91 (2).]

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