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The Complex Sentence with the Subjunctive Mood (= subjoined mood).

§ 91. Subordinate sentences with the verb in the subjunctive mood (§§ 50, 92) are used in three ways: (1) AS NOUN-SENTENCES, subjects or objects of a verb.

e.g. (a) It is necessary that he should know it.

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(2) AS ADVERBIAL-SENTENCES of reason or purpose.

(a) Eat that thou mayest live.

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In all cases the Subjunctive of Purpose is equivalent to an adverbial infinitive.

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(3) IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, where the condition is always an adverbial limitation of the consequent.

e.g. (a) "Could I fly, I'd fly with thee."

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(b) "Had you seen but his look, you'd have sworn on a book

He'd have conquered a whole armada."

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§ 92. The subjunctive mood makes statements not of fact, but of mental conception. It always regards the future, and uses past tenses only (in English of today), except in the subjunctive of purpose. [§ 91 (2).]

§ 93. The simplest form of the subjunctive mood is, were; and in the consequents of conditional sentences the forms are, would, should, would have, should have.

e.g. If it were to fall it would break.

§ 94. Other subjunctive forms may be resolved into these; but verbal compounds not subjunctive will, when resolved, show indicative forms. (§ 57.)

e.g. If you should run you would see him = If you were to run you would see him.

If you might run you might see him = If you were permitted to run, it would be possible for you to see him.

If you could run you would see him = If you were able to run you would see him.


If you would run I should be pleased If you were willing to run I should be pleased.

Although he tried, he could not lift the weight (= = was not able to lift, &c.)

§ 95. In conditional sentences indicative forms are often used.

e.g. If you run you will see him.

If you ran you would see him (= If you were to run, &c.—Indic. for subj.)

If I stand here, I saw him.




Analysis of English Speech-sounds.

§ 96. Letters are signs to represent the sounds made in speaking. When the sign is presented to the eye, the sound with which it is associated is recollected.

It has been determined that, in speaking English, forty distinct sounds are made. Therefore, if we would avoid confusion, we should have forty different characters or letters in our alphabet to represent them.

$97. The forty sounds are thus named: twelve simple vowel-sounds, four diphthongs, one nasal, four liquids, one aspirate, twelve mutes, and six sibilants.

§ 98. The twelve vowel-sounds may be heard in pronouncing—

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(b) The diphthongs are made by uniting two vowelsounds.

e.g. 1 and 11 in fowl, shout; 3 and 7 in boy, foil.

1 and 7 in pine; 7 and 11 in flew, view, beauty.

(c) The nasal may be heard as the closing sound of the word king.

(d) The liquids, so called because they melt or glide into other sounds, may be heard in—

(1) sleep, (2) pump, (3) saint, (4) screw.

(e) The aspirate or breathing is represented by h; as in hall, house.

N.B. It has no sound in heir, hour, honour, and their derivatives.

(f) The twelve mutes, which really do not represent sounds, but certain manners of commencing and cutting off sounds, may be heard as the initial and closing sounds of

1 4


5 6 7 9

8 8 11


pad, bathe, keg, froth, vat, khan, ghost.

There is a remarkable correspondence in the sounds represented by these letters:

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(g) The six sibilants or hissing sounds are heard


son zone, shone azure, chest gesture.

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