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Inefficiency of the English Alphabet.

61

CHAPTER II.

Inefficiency of the English Alphabet.

$ 99. Seeing that the very principle of alphabets is the representation of sounds, the objections so persistently made to phonetic spelling must be considered irrational.

The confusion in English spelling (= representation of sounds) is a disgrace to the language.

$ 100. The following are the causes of this confusion:

(1) Six letters are superfluous :
c = k or s, j = dzh, q=k, x = ks, y=i, w= 1.

(2) Two letters represent compounds, f (=fh), v (= vh).

(3) The same letters are used to represent various sounds.

(4) The same sounds are variously represented ; C.9. “the twelve simple vowel-sounds are represented in ninety-six ways."

(5) Letters are used which represent no sounds, which hence are called silent letters.

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N.B.-The principle of this arrangement of analysis is, that principal relations (29) are expressed by writing words large in the same horizontal line, and subordinate relations by writing words smaller and vertically under the words they qualify. Analysis should always precede parsing. The sign = is used to express apposition, and () to enclose words understood.

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Cæsar crossed the Rubicon

noun prop. verb trans. adj. noun prop.

masc. sing. 3rd, nom. act. indic. past sing. 3rd neut. sing. 3rd, obj.:

subject of the verb crossed." Rule 1. agreeing with its nom. “ Cæsar." Rule 2. qualifying “Rubicon.”

Rule 7. governed by the verb “ crossed.” Rule 5.

EXAMPLE 2. “In came Margaret's grimly ghost.”

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CLASSIFICATION,

INFLEXION.

SYNTAX

Margaret's grimly ghost came in

noun prop. adj. noun comm. verb intrans. prep.

fem. sing. 3rd, poss. neut. sing. 3rd, nom. indic. past sing. 3rd

came.

qualifying “ghost.” Rule 7.
qualifying “ghost."

Rule 7.
subject of the verb “

Rule 1.
agreeing with its nom. “ ghost.'

Rule 2.
connecting (room) with came.

EXAMPLE 3.

“The antique Persians taught three useful thingsTo draw the bow, to ride, and speak the truth.”

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to draw truth

verb trans. noun abstr.

act. inf. used as a noun, obj. neut. sing. 3rd, obj.

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in apposition with “things."

Rule 4. governed by the verb “ speak.' Rule 5.

EXAMPLE 4. “A sadder and a wiser man

He rose the morrow morn.

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verb intrans copul. indic. past sing. 3rd

masc. sing. 3rd, nom. noun abstr.

neut. sing. 3rd, obj.

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rose man morn

noun comm..

agreeing with its nom. “He.” Rule 2. after the copul. verb “rose. Rule 4. governed by prep. (on). Rule 5.

EXAMPLE 5.

“What shall be have that killed the deer?

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CLASSIFICATION.

INFLEXION.

SYNTAX.

shall

(=ought)
have
that

pron. rel.

verb. intrans. indic. pres. sing. 3rd

agreeing with its nom.“ he.” Rule 2. verb trans. inf. complement to the verb “shall” masc. sing. 3rd

agreeing with its antecedent“he.” Rule 3. and nom.

subject of the verb “killed.” Rule 1.
EXAMPLE 6. “Purer pleasure none may

know
Than the sweet strain to hear again

Loved long ago.

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may
know
purer

verb intrans.
verb trans.
adj.

indic. pres. sing. 3rd inf. complement of the verb “may” compar.

agreeing with its nom. (person). Rule 2. qualifying“ pleasure.”

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