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Inefficiency of the English Alphabet. 61
Inefficiency of the English Alphabet.
§ 99. Seeing that the very principle of alphabets is the representation of sounds, the objections so persistently made to phonetic spelling must be considered irrational.
The confusion in English spelling (= representation of sounds) is a disgrace to the language.
§ 100. The following are the causes of this confusion:
(1) Six letters are superfluous :
c = k or s, j = dzh, q=k, x= = ks, y=i, w (2) Two letters represent compounds, f (= fh), v (= vh).
(3) The same letters are used to represent various sounds.
(4) The same sounds are variously represented; c.7. "the twelve simple vowel-sounds are represented in ninety-six ways."
(5) Letters are used which represent no sounds, which hence are called silent letters.
N.B.-The principle of this arrangement of analysis is, that principal relations (29) are expressed by writing words large in the same horizontal line, and subordinate relations by writing words smaller and vertically under the words they qualify. Analysis should always precede parsing. The sign is used to express apposition, and () to enclose words understood.
subject of the verb "crossed." Rule 1. agreeing with its nom. "Cæsar."
qualifying "Rubicon." Rule 7.
neut. sing. 3rd, obj.
governed by the verb "crossed."
EXAMPLE 2. "In came Margaret's grimly ghost."
EXAMPLE 3. "The antique Persians taught three useful thingsTo draw the bow, to ride, and speak the truth."
to ride (the horse)
in apposition with "things."
governed by the verb "speak.' Rule 5.
verb intrans copul. indic. past sing. 3rd
masc. sing. 3rd, nom. neut. sing. 3rd, obj.
EXAMPLE 5. "What shall he have that killed the deer?"
verb trans. pron. rel.
inf. complement to the verb "shall masc. sing. 3rd
agreeing with its nom. "he." Rule 2.
agreeing with its antecedent "he." Rule 3. subject of the verb "killed." Rule 1.
EXAMPLE 6. "Purer pleasure none may know Than the sweet strain to hear again
Loved long ago."
agreeing with its nom. (person). Rule 2.