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The military nature of the Sports Program is likewise demon-
Topographical (naval) services.
25-Kilometer march with pack,
Basic knowledge of first aid in case of accidents. "Group III: Terrain service;
service.” (2354-PS) In 1939, the SA Sports Program was formally recognized, in a decree issued by Hitler, as a military training program. At the same time the SA was openly declared to be an agency for preand post-military training, that is, military training prior to and following military service in the Wehrmacht (2383-PS). The decree provided in part as follows:
“Der Fuehrer. In amplification of my decree of the 15th February, 1935, and 18th March, 1937, regarding the acquisition of the SA sport insignia and the yearly repetitive exercises, I lift the SA sport insignia to the SA military insignia and make it as a basis for pre-imposed military training.
"I designate the SA as standard bearer of this training.
(2383-PS) The SA military training program was not confined to its members, but extended to the entire youth of Germany. Thus the Chief of Staff of the SA, in re-establishing the sports program in 1935, declared (2354-PS):
"In order to give conscious expression to the fostering of a valiant spirit in all parts of the German people, I further decide that this SA Sport Insignia can also be earned and worn by persons who are not members of the movement, inasfar as they comply racially and ideologically with the
National Socialist requirements”. (2354-PS) The pamphlet entitled “The SA", shows that responsibility for conducting this nation-wide program was lodged in the operational main office of the SA (2168-PS). According to the pamphlet it was the duty of this office to—
"Prepare the fighting training of the bodies of all Germans capable of bearing arms (Wehrfahig) and as preparation therefor must organize the execution of corporal exercises (basic physical training) and sports achievements, so that the widest stratum of the population is laid hold upon and will be kept in condition to bear arms (Wehrtuchtig) both physically and spiritually, as well as ideologically in charac
ter up to greatest old age." (2168-PS) The extent to which the SA carried the military training program into the lives of the German people may be seen from the following excerpt from "Das Archiv" (3215-PS):
"Next to the companies of the SA were the sport badge
Corps of the Wehrmacht from its (SA) own ranks stand at the disposal of the SA and can be employed at any time for the direction of SA military forces
k”. (3215-PS) In 1939, the extension of the SA military program to non-SA members was officially recognized by Hitler. This occurred in the ordinance for the execution of the Hitler decree of 16 January, 1942:
“Every German man who has completed his seventeenth year
SA military insignia." (2383-PS) The SA, in its military training program, was no mere marching and drilling society. It embraced every phase of the technique of modern warfare. This appears clearly from the articles on military training which appear throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann". The titles of these articles indicate their substance. The following are a few examples:
Article entitled: "Defense Platoon and the Company in
Battle” (with diagrams), 27 January, 1934, p. 10.
craft Gunnery), 3 February 1934, p. 7.
Article entitled : "Orientation in Terrain," 10 March,
1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "First Aid-ABC," 17 March, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "We go into the Terrain" (relating to
map study and map symbols), 24 March, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "What every SA Man must know about
Aviation,” 21 April, 1934, p. 13.
Sport” (relating to small caliber firing), 12 May, 1934,
Aviation," 19 May, 1934, p. 12.
1934, p. 14.
the SA Man," 2 June, 1934, p. 14.
Article entitled: "The Significance of Tanks and Motors
in Modern War," 4 August, 1934, p. 13. Article entitled: "The Rifle 98," 8 September, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Combat Battalion" (with descrip
tion of tactical missions and maneuvers of the battalion),
15 September, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Air Strategy and Air Tactics," 29 Sep
tember, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Gas Protection and the Gas Mask,"
6 October, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Pistol 08” (with diagram of the
pistol, its nomenclature and field stripping), 6 October,
1934, p. 7.
Study,” 24 November, 1934, p. 4.
does the War of Tomorrow look like?" 1 December, 1934,
Series of articles by a Wehrmacht officer entitled: "Train
ing in the Army of the Third Reich,” beginning on
12 January, 1935, p. 13. Series of articles entitled: "Construction and Composition
of various units of the Modern Army," written by a Brigadier General in the Wehrmacht-- beginning 26
January, 1935, p. 15, and ending 20 April, 1935, p. 16. Article entitled: "Small caliber firing" (with sketches of
ammunition, rifles, targets, and aiming technique), 26
January, 1935, p. 19.
anticipated developments in motorized and mechanized
30 March, 1935, p. 14. The issues of "Der SA-Mann" also contain many photographs and articles demonstrating SA participation in military exercise, including forced marching, battle maneuvers, obstacle runs, small calibre firing, and the like. Among these photographs and articles are the following:
Each issue of "Der SA-Mann" contains advertisements for
the sale of various items of military equipment, including uniforms, steel helmets, rifles, boots, grenades, field glasses, ammunition, etc. (See, for example, 20 January, 1934, p. 16; and 9 March, 1935, p. 16.)
Picture of SA men marching in military formation exe
cuting "goose step," 14 April, 1934, p. 8. Group of pictures showing SA Troops marching in military
formations and in full pack and bearing flags being reviewed by Hitler. Title of page is "SA Marches into the
New Year," 12 January, 1935, p. 3. Photographs of uniformed SA Troops marching in streets
of Saarbrucken with caption: "In the streets of free Saarbrucken thuds the marching steps of the SA,"
9 March, 1935, p. 3. Group of photographs entitled: "SA Brigade 6 marches
for the German Danzig,” 4 May, 1935, p. 3. Article entitled: “Who fights against us we will defeat,
who provokes us we shall attack” (with picture of SA men in military formation bearing caption: “We are a
political ideological troop"), 13 July, 1935, p. 1. Article entitled: "The SA is and remains the Shock Troop
of the Third Reich" (with picture of Gruppenfuehrer reviewing SA men marching in uniform and in full pack,
in military formation), 24 August, 1935, p. 2. Article entitled: "SA Men at the heavy machine gun,”
3 July, 1936, p. 14. Photograph of SA men in uniform and full pack on obstacle
run, 29 August, 1936, p. 7. Article entitled: "Fight, Fight, Fight” with subtitles:
“Preparation of Francken Division for the the NS War Games” (with picture of SA men bearing arms), 26
June, 1937, p. 4. Photograph of SA men bearing weapons, bearing caption:
“Austria's SA: through battle, distress and persecution,
to victory.” Photograph bearing caption: “German-Austrian SA was
armed in the hour of decision,” 2 April, 1938, p. 1. Photograph of SA men bearing arms on battle maneuvers,
19 August, 1938, p. 8., bearing the caption : "The way to
victory.” Article entitled: "SA and the Wehrmacht" (with pictures
of SA men on field maneuvers throwing hand grenades),
2 September, 1938, p. 1. Photograph of SA men on field maneuvers, 9 September,
1938, p. 18. Photograph of SA men bearing arms in trenches, appar
ently on field maneuvers, - 16 September, 1938, p. 1. (Frankens-SA).