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The military nature of the Sports Program is likewise demon-
strated by the tests and standards required to obtain the sports
award. The Organization Book of the Party lists these tests as
follows (2354-PS):
“The performance test includes three groups of exercises :

Body exercises,
Military sports,

Topographical (naval) services.
"Group I: Body exercises;

100-meter race,
Broad jump,
Throwing of hand grenades,

3000-meter race.
"Group II: Military sports;

25-Kilometer march with pack,
Firing of small-caliber arms,
Aimed throwing of hand grenades,
200-meter cross-country race with gas masks over

4 obstacles,
Swimming or bicycle riding,

Basic knowledge of first aid in case of accidents. "Group III: Terrain service;

Terrain observation,
Estimate of terrain,
Estimate of distance,
Observing and reporting,
Utilization of terrain and general behavior in terrain

service.” (2354-PS) In 1939, the SA Sports Program was formally recognized, in a decree issued by Hitler, as a military training program. At the same time the SA was openly declared to be an agency for preand post-military training, that is, military training prior to and following military service in the Wehrmacht (2383-PS). The decree provided in part as follows:

“Der Fuehrer. In amplification of my decree of the 15th February, 1935, and 18th March, 1937, regarding the acquisition of the SA sport insignia and the yearly repetitive exercises, I lift the SA sport insignia to the SA military insignia and make it as a basis for pre-imposed military training.


"I designate the SA as standard bearer of this training.
"These soldiers who honourably were discharged out of the
active military service and who were serviceable soldiers are
to be placed into the Army ranks for the retaining of their
.spiritual and physical energy and to be attached to the SA
insofar as no other organization of the Party (the SS,
NSKK, and SFK) have received them for special training.”

(2383-PS) The SA military training program was not confined to its members, but extended to the entire youth of Germany. Thus the Chief of Staff of the SA, in re-establishing the sports program in 1935, declared (2354-PS):

"In order to give conscious expression to the fostering of a valiant spirit in all parts of the German people, I further decide that this SA Sport Insignia can also be earned and worn by persons who are not members of the movement, inasfar as they comply racially and ideologically with the

National Socialist requirements”. (2354-PS) The pamphlet entitled “The SA", shows that responsibility for conducting this nation-wide program was lodged in the operational main office of the SA (2168-PS). According to the pamphlet it was the duty of this office to—

"Prepare the fighting training of the bodies of all Germans capable of bearing arms (Wehrfahig) and as preparation therefor must organize the execution of corporal exercises (basic physical training) and sports achievements, so that the widest stratum of the population is laid hold upon and will be kept in condition to bear arms (Wehrtuchtig) both physically and spiritually, as well as ideologically in charac

ter up to greatest old age." (2168-PS) The extent to which the SA carried the military training program into the lives of the German people may be seen from the following excerpt from "Das Archiv" (3215-PS):

"Next to the companies of the SA were the sport badge
associations (SAG) in which all the militaristic nationals
entered who were prepared to voluntarily answer the call
of the SA for the preservation of military proficiency. Up
until now around 800,000 nationals outside of the SA could
successfully undergo the physical betterment as well as the
political military training of the SA on the basis of the SA
sport badge.
“As pronounced proof heretofore it may be shown that alone
13,400 officers and around 30,000 non-coms in the Reserve


Corps of the Wehrmacht from its (SA) own ranks stand at the disposal of the SA and can be employed at any time for the direction of SA military forces

k. (3215-PS) In 1939, the extension of the SA military program to non-SA members was officially recognized by Hitler. This occurred in the ordinance for the execution of the Hitler decree of 16 January, 1942:

“Every German man who has completed his seventeenth year
and who shows preliminary requirements for honorary serv-
ice with the weapon, has the customary duty to win the SA
military insignia in preparation for military service.
"During the years in the Hitler Youth following his six-
teenth year, he is to prepare himself for the winning of the

SA military insignia." (2383-PS) The SA, in its military training program, was no mere marching and drilling society. It embraced every phase of the technique of modern warfare. This appears clearly from the articles on military training which appear throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann". The titles of these articles indicate their substance. The following are a few examples:

Article entitled: "Defense Platoon and the Company in

Battle” (with diagrams), 27 January, 1934, p. 10.
Article entitled: "Die Luftwaffe" (with diagrams on Air-

craft Gunnery), 3 February 1934, p. 7.
Article entitled: "Pistol Shooting," 17 February, 1934,

p. 7.

Article entitled : "Orientation in Terrain," 10 March,

1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "First Aid-ABC," 17 March, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "We go into the Terrain" (relating to

map study and map symbols), 24 March, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "What every SA Man must know about

Aviation,” 21 April, 1934, p. 13.
Article entitled: "Expert firing in German National

Sport” (relating to small caliber firing), 12 May, 1934,

p. 7.
Article entitled: "Chemical Warfare,” 19 May, 1934, p. 13.
Article entitled: "What every SA Man should know about

Aviation," 19 May, 1934, p. 12.
Article entitled: "Flame Throwers on the Front,” 26 May,

1934, p. 14.
Article entitled: "Modern Battle Methods in the View of

the SA Man," 2 June, 1934, p. 14.

Article entitled: "The Significance of Tanks and Motors

in Modern War," 4 August, 1934, p. 13. Article entitled: "The Rifle 98," 8 September, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Combat Battalion" (with descrip

tion of tactical missions and maneuvers of the battalion),

15 September, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Air Strategy and Air Tactics," 29 Sep

tember, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Gas Protection and the Gas Mask,"

6 October, 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Pistol 08” (with diagram of the

pistol, its nomenclature and field stripping), 6 October,

1934, p. 7.
Article entitled: "Training the SA in Map and Terrain

Study,” 24 November, 1934, p. 4.
Article entitled: "The Defense,” with subheading "What

does the War of Tomorrow look like?" 1 December, 1934,

p. 13.

Series of articles by a Wehrmacht officer entitled: "Train

ing in the Army of the Third Reich,” beginning on

12 January, 1935, p. 13. Series of articles entitled: "Construction and Composition

of various units of the Modern Army," written by a Brigadier General in the Wehrmacht-- beginning 26

January, 1935, p. 15, and ending 20 April, 1935, p. 16. Article entitled: "Small caliber firing" (with sketches of

ammunition, rifles, targets, and aiming technique), 26

January, 1935, p. 19.
Article entitled: "Armies of Tomorrow" (discussion of

anticipated developments in motorized and mechanized
warfare. One section of the article is devoted to "Plans
of foreign countries with respect to motorized armies"),

30 March, 1935, p. 14. The issues of "Der SA-Mann" also contain many photographs and articles demonstrating SA participation in military exercise, including forced marching, battle maneuvers, obstacle runs, small calibre firing, and the like. Among these photographs and articles are the following:

Each issue of "Der SA-Mann" contains advertisements for

the sale of various items of military equipment, including uniforms, steel helmets, rifles, boots, grenades, field glasses, ammunition, etc. (See, for example, 20 January, 1934, p. 16; and 9 March, 1935, p. 16.)

Picture of SA men marching in military formation exe

cuting "goose step," 14 April, 1934, p. 8. Group of pictures showing SA Troops marching in military

formations and in full pack and bearing flags being reviewed by Hitler. Title of page is "SA Marches into the

New Year," 12 January, 1935, p. 3. Photographs of uniformed SA Troops marching in streets

of Saarbrucken with caption: "In the streets of free Saarbrucken thuds the marching steps of the SA,"

9 March, 1935, p. 3. Group of photographs entitled: "SA Brigade 6 marches

for the German Danzig,” 4 May, 1935, p. 3. Article entitled: “Who fights against us we will defeat,

who provokes us we shall attack” (with picture of SA men in military formation bearing caption: “We are a

political ideological troop"), 13 July, 1935, p. 1. Article entitled: "The SA is and remains the Shock Troop

of the Third Reich" (with picture of Gruppenfuehrer reviewing SA men marching in uniform and in full pack,

in military formation), 24 August, 1935, p. 2. Article entitled: "SA Men at the heavy machine gun,”

3 July, 1936, p. 14. Photograph of SA men in uniform and full pack on obstacle

run, 29 August, 1936, p. 7. Article entitled: "Fight, Fight, Fight” with subtitles:

“Preparation of Francken Division for the the NS War Games” (with picture of SA men bearing arms), 26

June, 1937, p. 4. Photograph of SA men bearing weapons, bearing caption:

“Austria's SA: through battle, distress and persecution,

to victory.” Photograph bearing caption: “German-Austrian SA was

armed in the hour of decision,” 2 April, 1938, p. 1. Photograph of SA men bearing arms on battle maneuvers,

19 August, 1938, p. 8., bearing the caption : "The way to

victory.” Article entitled: "SA and the Wehrmacht" (with pictures

of SA men on field maneuvers throwing hand grenades),

2 September, 1938, p. 1. Photograph of SA men on field maneuvers, 9 September,

1938, p. 18. Photograph of SA men bearing arms in trenches, appar

ently on field maneuvers, - 16 September, 1938, p. 1. (Frankens-SA).

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