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the air force and to transfer him to me to the Waffen-SS. I
would then assume the sole responsibility for having these
experiments made in this field, and would put the results, of
which we in the SS need only a part for the frost injuries
in the East, entirely at the disposal of the air force. How-
ever, in this connection I suggest that with the liaison be-
tween you and Wolff a "non-Christian" physician should be
charged, who should be at the same time honorable as a
scientist and not prone to intellectual theft and who could be
informed of the results. This physician should also have
good contacts with the adminstrative authorities, so that
the results would really obtain a hearing.
"I believe that this solution—to transfer Dr. Rascher to
the SS, so that he could carry out the experiments under my
responsibility and under my orders—is the best way. The
experiments should not be stopped; we owe that to our men.
If Dr. Rascher remained with the air force, there would cer-
tainly be much annoyance; because then I would have to
bring a series of unpleasant details to you, because of the
arrogance and assumption which Professor Dr. Holzloehner
has displayed in the post of Dachau—who is under my com-
mand-about me in utterances delivered to SS Colonel Siev-
ers. In order to save both of us this trouble, I suggest again
that Dr. Rascher should be transferred to the Waffen SS as

quickly as possible.” (1617-PS) Rascher's experiments were by no means the only experiments in which the SS was interested. Without attempting even to outline the whole extent of the experimental program, one further illustration of this type of SS activity may be mentioned. That is a report prepared by the Chief Hygienist in the office of the Reich Surgeon of the SS and Police, SS Oberfuehrer Dr. Mrugowsky, 12 September 1944, relating to experiments with poisoned bullets.

"On 11 September 1944, in the presence of SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Dr. Ding, Dr. Widman and the undersigned, experiments with Akonotinnitrate bullets were carried out on five persons who had been sentenced to death. The caliber of the bullets used was 7.65 cm and they were filled with the poison in crystal form. Each subject of the experiments received one shot in the upper part of the left thigh, while in a horizontal position. In the case of 2 persons, the bullets passed clean through the upper part of the thigh. Even later no effect from the poison could be seen. These two subjects were therefore rejected

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“The symptoms shown by the three condemned persons were
surprisingly the same. At first, nothing special was notice-
able. After 20 to 25 minutes, a disturbance of the motor
nerves and a light flow of saliva began, but both stopped
again. After 40 to 44 minutes a strong flow of saliva ap-
peared. The poisoned persons swallowed frequently, later
the flow of saliva is so strong that it can no longer be con-
trolled by swallowing. Foamy saliva flows from the mouth.

Then, a sensation of choking, and vomiting start.” (L-103) The next three paragraphs describe in coldly scientific fashion the reactions of the dying persons. That description then concludes:

"At the same time there was pronounced nausea. One of
the poisoned persons tried in vain to vomit. In order to suc-
ceed he put 4 fingers of his hand, up to the main joint, right
into his mouth. In spite of this, no vomiting occurred. His
face became quite red.
"The faces of the other two subjects were already pale at an
early stage. Other symptoms were the same. Later on the dis-
turbance of the motor nerves increased so much that the per-
sons threw themselves up and down rolled their eyes and
made aimless movements with their hands and arms. At
last, the disturbance subsided, the pupils were enlarged to
the maximum, the condemned lay still. Massetercramp and
loss of urine was observed in one of them. Death occurred

121, and 129 minutes after they were shot.” (L-103)
The fact that SS doctors engaged in such experiments was no
accident. It was consistent with an ideology and racial philosophy
which, to use Himmler's own words, regarded human beings as
lice and offal. But the most important factor was the fact that
only the SS was in a position to supply necessary human material,
And it did supply such material through WVHA. A letter from
the Department Chief of Office Group D of WVHA, 12 May 1944,
addressed to the commandants of all concentration camps dealt
with the assignment of prisoners for the experimental purposes :

“There is cause to call attention to the fact that in every
case permission for assignment has to be requested here be-
fore assignment of prisoners is made for experimental pur-
poses.
“To be included in this request are number, kind of cus-
tody, and in case of aryan prisoners, exact personal data,
file number in the Main Reich's Security Office and reason for
detainment into the concentration camp.

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“Herewith, I explicitly forbid assignment of prisoners for

experimental purposes without permission." (1751-PS) It was on the basis of its ability to supply such material that the Ministry of Finance was prepared to subsidize the SS experimental program. This matter was discussed in a series of letters between the Ministry of Finance, the Reichs Research Department, and the Reich Surgeon of the SS and police (002-PS). The first is from the office of the Executive Council of the Reichs Research Department, addressed to the Reichs Surgeon SS and Police, 19 February 1943, and signed by Mentzel, Chief of Bureau, SS Brigade Leader:

"The Reichs Minister of Finance told me that you re-
quested 53 leading positions (BES. GR C3-C8) for your
office, partly for a new research institute.
"After the Reichsmarshall of the Great German Reich
had, as President of the Reichs Research Dept., entrusted
himself with all German research, issued directives among
other things, that in the execution of military important sci-
entific tasks, the available institutions including equipment
and personnel should be utilized to the utmost for reasons of
necessary economization (of effort).
"The foundation of new institutes comes therefore only in
question in as far as there are no outstanding institutes avail-
able for the furtherance of important war research tasks."

(002-PS) To this letter the Reich Surgeon of SS and Police replied on 26 February 1943:

“In acknowledgment of your correspondence of the 19th
Feb. 1943, I am able to reply the following to it today:
"The appropriation for the 53 key positions for my office
which you made the basis of your memorandum was a veri-
table peace plan.
“The special institutes of the SS which are to be partly
staffed through this appropriation are to serve the purpose
to establish and make accessible for the entire realm of scien-
tific research, the particular possibilities of research only
possessed by the SS."

"I will gladly be at your disposal at any time to discuss the particular research aims in connection with the SS, which I would like to bring up upon the direction of the Reichs Direc

tor SS.” (002-PS) An interview between the Reich Surgeon and Mentzel took

place, and on 25 March 1943 Mentzel wrote the following letter
to the Reich Minister of Finance:

"In regard to your correspondence of the 19th Dec (J 4761—
174 I g III. Ang) to which I gave you a preliminary commu-
nication on the 19th Feb, I finally take the following position:
"The Surgeon General-SS and Police, in a personal discus-
sion, told me that the budget claim which he looks after is
used primarily in the pure military sector of the Waffen SS.
Since it is established on a smaller scale for the enlarging of
scientific research possibilities, they pertain therefore ex-
clusively to such affairs that are carried out with the material
(Prisoners'Haflinge') which is only accessible to the Waf-
fen SS and are therefore not to be undertaken for any other
experimental purposes.
"I cannot object therefore on the part of the Reichs Experi-
mental Counsel against the budget claims of the Surgeon
General, SS and Police." (002-PS)

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(5) Functions and Activities with respect to Jewish Persecution. Through its activities with respect to concentration camps the SS performed part of its mission to safeguard the security of the Nazi regime. But another specialized aspect of that mission must not be forgotten. Himmler had defined that task as the prevention of a "Jewish Bolshevist revolution of subhumans." In plain words this meant participation in the Nazi program of Jewish persecution and extermination. That program involved every branch and component of the SS.

The racial philosophy of the SS made that organization a natural agency for the execution of all types of antisemitic measures. The SS position on the Jewish question was publicly stated in the SS newspaper Das Schwarze Korps,” in the issue of 8 August 1940, by its editor, Gunter d'Alquen (2668-PS). "Das Schwarze Korps" was the official propaganda agency of the SS which every SS man was required to read and to induce others to read. This was the SS position on the Jews:

"Just as the Jewish question will be solved for Germany
only when the last Jew has been deported, so the rest of
Europe should realize that the German peace which awaits

it must be a peace without Jews.” (2668-PS)
The attempted “solution” of the Jewish question through po-
groms and “spontaneous” demonstrations occurred following the
murder of von Rath in November 1938. In these demonstrations
all branches of the SS were called on to play a part. The teletype
message from SS Gruppenfuehrer Heydrich, Chief of the Secur-

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ity Police and SD, issued on 10 November 1938 concerning “Measures against Jews tonight,” provided :

The direction of the measures of the Security Police concerning the demonstrations against Jews is vested with the organs of the State Police-inasmuch as the inspectors of the Security Police are not issuing their own orders. In order to carry out the measures of the Security Police, officials of the Criminal Police, as well as members of the SD, of the Verfuegungstruppe and the Allgemeine SS may

be used." (3051-PS) With the outbreak of the war and the march of Nazi armies over the Continent, the SS participated in “solving" the Jewish question in all the countries of Europe. The solution was nothing short of extermination. To a large degree these wholesale murders were disguised under the name of "antipartisan” or “antiguerilla" actions, and as such included as victims not merely Jews but Soviets, Poles, and other Eastern peoples. One example of an action confined essentially to Jews was the mass annihilation of Jews in gas vans (501-PS). Those vans were operated by the Security Police and SD under the direction of RSHA. Another example is found in the report entitled "Solution of the Jewish Question in Galicia,” prepared by SS Gruppenfuehrer and Lt. General of the Police Katzman and rendered to SS Obergruppenfuehrer and General of the Police Krueger (L-18). The "solution,” which consisted in evacuation and extermination of all the Jews in Galicia and confiscation of their property, was carried out under the energetic direction of the SS and Police Leaders, with the assistance of SS police units, as the report proudly boasts. Three additional items in that report dealing specifically with the SS should be noted. The first is the text under a photograph in the original report: i

"Great was the joy of the SS men when the Reichsfuehrer SS in person in 1942 visited some camps along the Rollbahn."

(L-18) The second is a balance sheet, showing the income from forced Jewish labor and expenditures therefrom. Item 3 on the balance sheet reads as follows: “3. Amount paid over to the SS cashier: Camps

6,876,251,00 ZI W&R Factories

6,556,513,69 ZI

a.

b.

13,432,764,69 ZI Further payments to the SS-cashier are effected every month." (L-18)

693255—47-15

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