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The third is the last two paragraphs of the report:

"Despite the extraordinary burden heaped upon every single
SS Police Officer during these actions, mood and spirit of the
men were extraordinarily good and praiseworthy to the last
day.
“Only thanks to the sense of duty of every single leader and
man have we succeeded to get rid of this PLAGUE in so short

a time." (L-18) One final example of SS participation in Jewish extermination is the report by SS Brigadefuehrer and Major General of the Police, Stroop, of the destruction of the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw during April and May 1943 (1061-PS). Two sections of that report dealing with the constitution of the participating forces should be noted. A table of the units used indicates the average number of officers and men from each unit employed per day. It will be observed that among the units involved were the staff of the SS and Police Leader, two battalions of the Waffen SS, two battalions of the 22d SS Police Regiment and members of the Security Police. The part played by the Waffen SS particularly came in for high praise from the writer of the report. Tribute is paid to the toughness of the men of the Waffen SS, Police, and Wehrmacht. In the next paragraph the writer says:

"Considering that the greater part of the men of the Waffen SS had been trained for only three or four weeks before being assigned to this action, high credit should be given for the pluck, courage and devotion to duty which they showed.”

(1061-PS) The selection methods and ideological education of Waffen SS men furnished such good grounding that a few weeks of practice was all that was required to turn them into excellent exterminators. Himmler's proud boast of the part that the SS played in the extermination of the Jews occurs in his Posen Speech:

“Most of you must know what it means when 100 corpses are
lying side by side, or 500 or 1,000. To have stuck it out and at
the same time—apart from the exceptions caused by human
weakness—to have remained decent fellows, that is what has
made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history which
has never been written and is never to be written
(1919-PS)

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(6) Functions and activities with respect to preparing for and waging aggressive war. From the very beginning the SS made prime contributions to the conspirators' aggressive aims. First, it served as one of the para-military organizations under which the

conspirators disguised their building up of an Army in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Second, through affiliated SS organizations in other countries and through some of the departments in its own Supreme Command, it fostered Fifth Column movements outside Germany and prepared the way for aggression. Third, through its militarized units, it participated in the aggressive actions which were eventually carried out.

(a) The SS as a para-military organization. The para-military character of the General SS is apparent from the military character of its structure, the military discipline required of its members, and the steps it took to enlist in its ranks young men of military age. In addition to this volunteer Army the SS created, as early as 1933, fully armed professional soldiers who complied with the requirement for compulsory military service by performing duties in the SS. These were the SS Vorfuegungstruppe and the Death Head Units.

(6) The SS as a fifth column agency. While building up the SS as a military force within Germany, the conspirators also utilized it in other countries to lay the groundwork for aggression. During the seizure of Austria, the SS Standarte 89 was directly involved in the murder of Chancellor Dolfuss, and a memorial placque was erected in Vienna as a tribute to the SS men who participated in that murder (L-273; 2968-PS). Subsequently, on the night of 11 March 1938, the SS with the SA marched into Vienna and occupied all government buildings and important posts in the city. (See the report of Gauleiter Rainer to Reich Commissioner Buerckel (812-PS); and the record of the telephone conversations between Goering and Dambrowski (2949-PS)).

The same pattern was repeated in Czechoslovakia. Henlein's Free Corps played in that country the part of fifth column which the SS had played in Austria and was rewarded, in September 1938, by being placed under the jurisdiction of the Reichsfuehrer SS (388-PS, Items 37, 38). Moreover, a Most Secret OKW order of 28 September 1938, reveals that the SS had its own armed units, four battalions of Totenkopf Verbaende, actually operating in Czechoslovakian territory before the Munich Pact was signed (388-PS, Item 36).

But SS preparations for aggression were not confined to military forces. One of the departments of the SS Supreme Command, the Volkdeutsche Mittelstelle, was a center for fifth column activity. At the secret meeting between Ribbentrop and Henlein in March 1938, at which the line to be followed by the Sudeten German Party was determined, the Volkdeutsche Mittelstelle was represented by Professor Haushofer and SS Obergruppenfuehrer

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Lorenz (2788-PS). And when the Foreign Office in August 1938 awarded further subsidies to Henlein's Sudeten Party, the memorandum of that recommendation (3059-PS) contained the significant footnote:

"Volkdeutsche Mittlestelle will be informed." (3059-PS) (c) SS participation in aggressive war. When at last the time came to strike, the SS was ready. In the words of the National Socialist Yearbook for 1940 (2164-PS):

"When the march into the liberated provinces of the Sudeten-
land began on that memorable October 1, 1938, Verfuegungs-
truppe as well as the Death Head Units were along with those
in the lead.
"The 15th of March 1939 brought a similar utilization of the
SS when it served to establish order in collapsing.Czechoslo-
vakia. This action ended with the founding of the protec-
torate Bohemia-Moravia.
"Only a week later, on the 29th of March 1939, Memel also
returned to the Reich upon basis of an agreement with Lith-
uania. Again it was the SS, here above all the Eastern Prus-
sian SS, which played a prominent part in the liberation of

this province.” (2164-PS) In the final act which set off the war, the attack on Poland in September 1939, the SS acted as stage manager. In his affidavit (Affidavit A), Maj. Gen. Erwin Lahousen describes the simulated attack on the radio station Gleiwitz by Germans dressed in Polish uniforms, as one of the most mysterious actions which took place in the Abwehr office:

“This was an incident which had been deliberately engineered and directed by the SD and it was executed by prisoners from Concentration Camps dressed up in Polish uniforms, and using Polish weapons and equipment. Those prisoners were later murdered by the SD in order to eliminate any possibility

of their giving testimony of the incident." (Affidavit A) The war erupted and the Waffen SS again took its place in the van of the attacking forces.

(7) Functions and activities with respect to commission of war crimes. During the war great use was made of the peculiar qualities possessed by the SS-qualities not only of its combat force, but of its other components as well—in executing tasks embracing the commission of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

(a) "Antipartisan" operations. A directive issued by Keitel on 13 March 1941, making preparations 3 months in advance for the attack on Russia, provided that in the area of operations the

Reichsfuehrer SS was entrusted with special tasks for the preparation of the political administration tasks which would result from the struggle about to commence between two opposing political systems. (447-PS)

One of the steps taken by the Reichsfuehrer SS to carry out those "special tasks" was the formation and use of so-called "antipartisan" units. They were discussed by Himmler in his Posen speech:

“In the meantime I have also set up the Chief of the anti-
partisan units. Our comrade SS Obergruppenfuehrer von
dem Bach is Chief of the antipartisan units. I considered it
necessary for the Reichsfuehrer SS to be in authoritative
command in all these battles, for I am convinced that we are
best in position to take action against this enemy struggle,
which is decidedly a political one. Except where units which
had been supplied and which we had formed for this purpose
were taken from us to fill in gaps at the front, we have been
very successful.
"It is notable that by setting up this department, we have
gained for the SS in turn, a division, a corps, an army, and
the next step-which is the High Command of an army or

area of a group—if you wish to call it that." (1919-PS) What the SS did with its division, corps, and army, out of which the antipartisan units were formed, is illustrated in the "Activity and Situation Report No. 6 of the Task Forces of the Security Police and SD in the U.S.S.R.," covering the period from 1 to 31 October 1941 (R-102). The report shows that so-called "antipartisan” activity was actually nothing but a name for extermination of Jews and persons believed politically undesirable. The report is a carefully organized and detailed description of such extermination. Section I describes the stations of the various Task Forces involved, and section II their activities. The latter section is divided into parts, each dealing with a different geographical region—the Baltic area, White Ruthenia, and the Ukraine. Under each area the report of activities is classified under three headings: (a) Partisan activity and counteraction; (6) arrests and executions of communists and officials; and (c) Jews. The following units were involved (R-102): "The present stations are:

“Task Force A: since 7 October 1941 Krasnowardeisk.
"Task Force B: continues in Smolensk.
“Task Force C: since 27 September 1941 in Kiew.

"Task Force D: since 27 September 1941 in Nikolajew. "The Action and Special Commandos (Einsatz und Sonder

Commandos) which are attached to the Task Force continue on the march with the advancing troops into the sectors which

have been assigned to them." (R-102) The section headed "Baltic area" and subsection labeled “Jews" read as follows (R-102):

"Spontaneous demonstrations against Jewry followed by po-
groms on the part of the population against the remaining
Jews have not been recorded on account of the lack of ade-
quate indoctrination.
“However, the Estonian Protective Corps (Selbtschutz),
formed at the time of the entry of the Wehrmacht, immedi-
ately started a comprehensive arrest action of all Jews. This
action was under the direction of the task force of the Se-
curity Police and the SD."

“The male Jews over 16 were executed with the exception of doctors and the elders. At the present time this action is still in progress. After completion of this action there will remain only 500 Jewesses and children in the Eastern Territory.”

(R-102) In the section headed "White Ruthenia," the subsection labeled "Partisan activity and counteraction," the following appear:

"In Wultschina 8 juveniles were arrested as partisans and
shot. They were inmates of a children's home. They had col-
lected weapons which they hid in the woods. Upon search
the following were found: 3 heavy machine guns, 15 rifles,
several thousand rounds of ammunition, several hand gre-
nades, and several packages of poison gas Ebrit.
b. Arrests and executions of communists, officials, and
criminals.
A further large part of the activity of the Security Police
was devoted to the combatting of Communists and criminals.
A special Commando in the period covered by this report exe-

cuted 63 officials, NKVD agents and agitators." (R-102) The preceding subsection ends with the following statement:

"The liquidations for the period covered by this report have

reached a total of 37,180 persons.” (R-102) And under the section headed "Ukraine," the subsection "Jews," this statement occurs:

"Shitomir
In Shitomir 3,145 Jews had to be shot, because from expe-
rience they have to be regarded as bearers of Bolshevik propa-
ganda and saboteurs." (R-102)

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