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with the defendant Goering is clear from the following statement in Frank's Diary for 10 May 1940:

"Then the Governor General deals with the problem of the Compulsory Labor Service of the Poles. Upon the demands from the Reich it has now been decreed that compulsion may be exercised in view of the fact that sufficient manpower was not voluntarily available for service inside the German Reich. This compulsion means the possibility of arrest of male and female Poles. Because of these measures a certain disquietude had developed which, according to individual reports, was spreading very much, and which might produce difficulties everywhere. General Fieldmarshal Goering some time ago pointed out in his long speech the necessity to deport into the Reich a million workers. The supply so far was 160,000. However, great difficulties had to be overcome. Therefore it would be advisable to consult the district and town chiefs in the execution of the compulsion, so that one could be sure from the start that this action would be reasonably successful. The arrest of young Poles when leaving church service or the cinema would bring about an increasing nervousness of the Poles. Generally speaking, he had no objections at all if the rubbish, capable of work yet often loitering about, would be snatched from the streets. The best method for this, however, would be the organization of a raid, and it would be absolutely justifiable to stop a Pole in the street and to question him what he was doing, where he

was working, etc." (2233-A-PS) Goering was also responsible for the harsh treatment given these workers when they reached Germany. On 8 March 1940, as Plenipotentiary of the Four-Year Plan and as Chairman of the Cabinet Counsel for the Defense of the Reich, he issued a directive to the Supreme Reich authorities, entitled: "Treatment of male and female civilian workers of Polish Nationality in the Reich." In this directive Goering provided in part:

"The mass employment of male and female civilian workers
of Polish nationality in the Reich necessitates a comprehen-
sive ruling on treatment of these workers.
"The following orders are to be executed at once:

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"4. The blameless conduct of the Poles is to be assured by special regulations. The legal and administrative regulations, necessary for this, will be issued by the Reichsfuehrer-SS and Chief of the German Police at the Reich Ministry of the Interior.

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“6. Attention is drawn to the explanations enclosed as ap

pendix." (R-148) Attached to this directive, and also dated 8 March 1940, were a series of regulations issued by Himmler, as Reichfuehrer SS and Chief of the German Police. These regulations provided for stringent measures and discrimination against Polish workers in the Reich. In a covering Express Letter addressed to all State Police district-offices and State Police offices, also dated 8 March 1940, Himmler made clear what was intended in order to secure “blameless conduct”. He stated :

“The steps to be taken to combat insubordination and non-
compliance with the duty to work, must be decided according
to the severity of the case and to the spirit of resistance of
the offender. It is of most importance that they be taken
immediately after the offense is committed so that they have
a decisive effect. In accordance with my instructions in the
appended decrees, especially severe measures must be taken
during the first eight weeks, in order to bring home to the
workers of Polish nationality from the outset the conse-
quences of noncompliance with the orders issued.
"In general, in all cases where a warning, by the State Police
or a short imprisonment is not sufficient to induce the worker
to fulfill his duties, application is to be made for his transfer
to a labor training camp, and an opinion given on what
treatment he should receive there. The treatment in the
labor training camps will have to be in accordance with the
severity of the offense. It is suitable, e. g., to make obstinate
shirkers work in the stone-quarries of the Mauthausen camp.
By a special decree, to the heads of SS-Deathshead Units and
conc tration camps, I have ordered that the treatment of
these persons under protective custody be undertaken in a
concentration camp.
"Extraordinarily serious cases have to be reported to the
Chief of the Security Police and the SD who, after examina-
tion, make the decision on a special treatment of the workers

of Polish nationality in question.” (R148) On 29 January 1942 the Division for the Employment of labor in the Four-Year Plan Office issued a circular, signed by Dr. Mansfeld, the General Delegate for Labor Employment in the Four-Year Plan Office, and addressed to various civilian and military authorities in the occupied territories, explaining the various means to be used to force workers to go to Germany. The circular provides in part:

"Subject: Increased mobilization of man-power for the German Reich from the occupied territories and preparations for mobilization by force. "On the one hand, the labor shortage which was rendered more acute by the draft for the Wehrmacht, and on the other hand, the increased scope of the armament problem in the German Reich, render it necessary that manpower for service in the Reich be recruited from the occupied territories to a much greater extent than heretofore, in order to relieve the shortage of labor. Therefore, any and all methods must be adopted which make possible the transportation, without exception and delay, for employment in the German Reich, of manpower in the occupied territories which is unemployed or which can be released for use in Germany after most careful screening. “This mobilization shall first of all, as heretofore, be carried out on a voluntary basis. For this reason, the recruiting effort for employment in the German Reich must be strengthened considerably. But if satisfactory results are to be obtained, the German authorities, who are functioning in the occupied territories, must be able to exert any pressure necessary to support the voluntary recruiting of labor for employment in Germany. Accordingly, to the extent that may be necessary, the regulations in force in the occupied territories in regard to shift in employment and withdrawal of support upon refusal to work, must be tightened. Supplementary regulations concerning shift in employment must above all insure that older personnel who are freed must be exchanged for younger personnel to make up for it, so that the latter may be made available for the Reich. A far-reaching decrease in the amount of relief granted by Public Welfare must also be effected in order to induce laborers to accept employment in the Reich. Unemployment relief must be set so low that the amount in comparison with the average wages in the Reich and the possibilities there for sending remittances home may serve as an inducement to accept employment in the Reich. When refusal to accept work in the Reich is not justified, the compensation must be reduced to an amount barely enough for subsistence, or even be cancelled. In this connection, partial withdrawal of ration cards and assignment to particularly heavy obligatory labor may be considered. “However, all misgivings must give way before the necessity of supplying the deficit in manpower caused by excessive draft calls into the Armed Forces, in order to avoid detri

ment to the armament industry. For this purpose the forci-
ble mobilization of workers from the occupied territories
cannot be disregarded, in case the voluntary recruiting is
unsuccessful. The mere possibility of mobilization by force
will, in many cases, make recruiting easier.
“Therefore, I ask you immediately to take any measures in
your district which will promote the employment of work-
ers in the German Reich on a voluntary basis. I herewith re-
quest you to prepare for publication regulations applying to
forced mobilization of laborers from your territory for Ger-
many, so that they may be decreed at once, in case recruit-
ing on a voluntary basis will not have the desired result, that
is relief of the manpower shortage in the Reich. I request

you to inform me of the measures taken by you." (1183-PS) On 21 March 1942, Hitler promulgated a decree appointing Sauckel Plenipotentiary General for Man Power. This decree provided in part:

"In order to secure the manpower requisite for the war in-
dustries as a whole, and particularly for armaments, it is
necessary that the utilization of all available manpower, in-
cluding that of workers recruited [erwerben] abroad and of
prisoners of war, should be subject to a uniform control, di-
rected in a manner appropriate to the requirements of war
industry, and further that all still incompletely utilized man-
power in the Greater German Reich, including the Pro-
tectorate, and in the General Government and in the occu-
pied territories, should be mobilized.
"Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter Fritz Sauckel will carry out
this task within the framework of the Four-Year Plan, as
plenipotentiary general, for the employment of manpower. In
that capacity he will be directly responsible to the Commis-

sioner for the Four-Year Plan." (1666-PS) On 27 March 1942, Goering, as Plenipotentiary for the FourYear Plan, issued a decree in pursuance of the Fuehrer's decree of 21 March 1942. This decree provided :

"In pursuance of the Fuehrer's Decree of 21 March 1942
(RGBI I, 179), I decree as follows:
“1. My manpower sections (Geschaeftsgruppen Arbeitsein-
satz) are hereby abolished (circular letter of 22 Oct 1936/
St M. Dev. 265). Their duties (recruitment and allocation
of manpower, regulations for labor conditions (Arbeitsbedin-
gungen)) are taken over by the Plenipotentiary General for
Arbeitseinsatz, who is directly under me.
“2. The Plenipotentiary General for Arbeitseinsatz will be
responsible for regulating the conditions of labor (wage pol-
icy) employed in the Reich Territory, having regard to the
requirements of Arbeitseinsatz.
"3. The Plenipotentiary General for Arbeitseinsatz is part
of the Four-Year Plan. In cases where new legislation is re-
quired, or existing laws required to be modified, he will sub-
mit appropriate proposals to me.
“4. The Plenipotentiary General for Arbeitseinsatz will have
at his disposal for the performance of his task the right
delegated to me by the Fuehrer for issuing instructions to
the higher Reich authorities, their branches and the Party
offices, and their associated organisms and also the Reich
Protector, the General Governor, the Commander-in-Chief,
and heads of the civil administrations. In the case of ordi-
nances and instructions of fundamental importance a report

is to be submitted to me in advance." (1666-PS) Since Sauckel was an authority of the Four-Year Plan, it is clear that Goering remains responsible for the war crimes committed by Sauckel as Plenipotentiary-General for Manpower. (See Chapter X on The Slave Labor Program.)

(2) Employment of Prisoners of War in War Industry. The Nazi conspirators ordered prisoners of war to work under dangerous conditions, and in the manufacturing and transportation of arms or munitions, in violation of the Laws of War and of Articles 31 and 32 of the Geneva Convention of 27 July 1929 on Prisoners of War. (See Chapter X on The Illegal Use of Prisoners of War.)

Goering had a part in these crimes. At a conference on 7 November 1941, the subject of which was the employment of Russians, including Russian prisoners of war, it appears from a memorandum signed by Koerner, State Secretary to the defendant Goering as Plenipotentiary for the Four-Year Plan, that Goering gave the following directives for use of Russians as laborers:

"I. The stronger labor reserves in the zone of the interior
are also decisive for the war.
“The Russian workers have proved their productive capacity
during the development of the huge Russian industry. There-
fore it must be made available to the Reich from now on. Ob-
jections against this order of the Fuehrer are of the second-
ary nature. The disadvantages which can be created by the
Arbeitseinsatz have to be reduced to a minimum : the task
especially of counter-intelligence and security police.
"II. The Russian in the zone of operations.

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