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"4—Mass arrests and mass shootings by the German police
who applied the system of collective responsibility.
"5—The rigorous methods of recruiting workers.
"6–The extensive paralyzation of cultural life.
"7—The closing of high schools, junior colleges, and uni-
"8—The limitation, indeed the complete elimination of Polish
influence from all spheres of State administration.
“9-Curtailment of the influence of the Catholic Church,
limiting its extensive influence - an undoubtedly necessary
move-and, in addition, until quite recently, the closing and
confiscation of monasteries, schools and charitable institu-

tions." (437-PS) In order to illustrate how completely Frank as Governor General is identified with the criminal policies whose execution is reported in the foregoing document, and the extent to which they were the official policies of his administration, it is proposed to annotate several of the items with passages from Frank's own diary.

(1) Undernourishment of Polish population. The extent of the undernourishment of the Polish population was reported to Frank in September 1941 by Obermedizinalrat Dr. Walbaum:

"Obermedizinalrat Dr. Walbaum expresses his opinion of the health condition of the Polish population. Investigations which were carried out by his department proved that the majority of Poles eat only about 600 calories, whereas the normal requirement for a human being is 2,200 calories. The Polish population was enfeebled to such an extent that it would fall an easy prey to spotted fever. The number of diseased Poles amounted today already to 40%. During the last week alone 1000 new spotted fever cases have been officially recorded.

If the food rations were to be diminished again, an enormous increase of the number of illnesses

could be predicted.” (2233-P-PS) It was clear from this report that starvation was prevalent in the General Government. Nevertheless, in August 1942, Frank approved a new plan which called for much larger contributions of foodstuffs to Germany at the expense of the nonGerman population of the General Government. Methods of meeting the new quotas out of the already grossly inadequate rations of the General Government, and the impact of the new quotas on the economy of the country were discussed at a Cabinet meeting of the General Government on 18 August 1942 in terms which leave no


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doubt that not only was the proposed requisition far beyond the resources of the country, but its impact was to be distributed on a discriminatory basis.

Frank's opening remarks at this meeting defined the scope of the problem and its solution:

“Before the German people are to experience starvation, the occupied territories and their people shall be exposed to starvation. In this moment therefore we here in the General Government must also have the iron determination to help the Great German people, our Fatherland. ... The General Government therefore must do the following: The General Government has taken on the obligation to send 500,000 tons bread grains to the Fatherland in addition to the foodstuffs already being delivered for the relief of Germany or consumed here by troops of the armed forces, Police or SS. If you compare this with our contributions of last year you can see that this means a six fold increase over that of last year's contribution of the General Government. The new demand will be fulfilled exclusively at the expense of the foreign population. It must be done cold bloodedly and without pity;

(2233-E-PS). President of the Main Department for Food and Agriculture Naumann (apparently an official of the General Government) then described how the reduced quantity of food available for feeding the population of the General Government should be distributed :

"The feeding of a Jewish population, estimated heretofore at
1.5 million, drops off to an estimated total of 300,000 Jews,
who still work for German interests as craftsmen or other-
wise. For these the Jewish rations, including certain special
allotments which have proved necessary for the maintenance
of working capacity, will be retained. The other Jews, a
total of 1.2 million, will no longer be provided with food-
"Non-German normal consumers will receive, from 1 Janu-
ary 1943 to 1 March 1943, instead of 4.2 kg. bread per month,
2.8 kg; from 1 March 1943 to 30 July 1943 the total bread
ration for these non-German normal consumers will be can-
Those entitled to be supplied [Versorgungsberechtigten) are
composed as follows. We estimate that 3 million persons
come into consideration as war workers, the A- and B-card
holders and their kin, and that somewhat more than 3 mil-

lion persons are non-German normal consumers, who do not work directly or indirectly in the interests of Germany. The war workers, A- and B-card holders and their families, about 3 million persons, will however continue to be supplied, up

to the harvest of 1943, at the prevailing rates.” (2233-E-PS) Naumann goes on to discuss the difficulties that may be encountered in the process of requisition:

The securing of all depots and food processing plants, as well as their transport facilities must be assured, as otherwise irreplaceable losses result which mean a further burdening of the food budget. I have had maps made of all districts (Kreise] on which the depots have all been drawn in. I request that the necessary measures be taken on the part of the police and these depots, which are in the eye of the hungering masses, above all at times when the restrictions are carried out, should be strictly guarded, so that the meager supplies which we have until the new harvest should not be destroyed by sabotage or arson. ... Finally it must be determined at the beginning of November whether the martial law for the harvest period, which has been proclaimed up to 30 November, must be extended to 30 December. Martial law for the harvest period has been extended to all products which are to be seized. The planned quota increase and reduction of ration quantities must be kept secret under all circumstances and may be published only at that time which the Main Department for Food and Agriculture considers proper. Should the reduction of ration quantities and the increase of quotas become known earlier, extremely noticeable disturbances in the seizure would take place. The mass of the Polish population would then go to the land and would become a supplementary competitor of our requisitioning

agencies." (2233-E-PS) Frank's concluding remarks summarized the position as follows:

"I must point out that some sectors of the administration
will feel this very keenly. In the first place the police will
.feel this, for it will have to deal, if I may say so, with an in-
creased activity of the black market and a neglect of food
customs. I will gladly give the police extraordinary powers
so that they can overcome these difficulties.
“The economy will feel it. The decrease of work rendered
will become felt in all sectors, branches and regions. I also
assume that our transport system will feel it too. In view of
the worsening living conditions an extraordinary hardship
will set in for railroad workers and other categories; as the
previous quantities of food were already not enough. The
monopolies will feel it through a decrease of their incomes,
as the amounts of potatoes available for the production of
vodka will be less.
"The Germans in this area shall not feel it. We wish in spite
of this new plan to see to it that the supplies for Germans
will be maintained. Also the Wehrmacht and other en-
camped units in this area shall not feel it. We hope that it
will be possible for us to keep up the whole quotas here.
"To help in this necessity there is a corresponding measure,
namely that the supervision of persons traveling from the
General Government to the Reich, above all of military per-
sonnel, in order to see whether they are taking food out of
the General Government, should be suspended. This means
that in addition to all that which we must now extract from
the land economically, there must take place a complete re-
moval of control over that which is dragged out of the land
by thousands upon thousands—doubtless illegally and against

our government measures.” (2233-E-PS) The extent of the General Government's food contribution to the Reich, and its significance in terms of rations within Germany were described by Frank at a meeting of political leaders of the NSDAP in December 1942 at Cracow:

"I will endeavor to get out of the reservoir of this territory everything that is yet to be got out of it. When you consider that it was possible for me to deliver to the Reich 600,000 tons of bread grain, and in addition 180,000 tons to the Armed Forces stationed here; further an abundance amounting to many thousands of tons of other commodities such as seed, fats, vegetables, besides the delivery to the Reich of 300 million eggs, etc.—you can estimate the significance of the consignment from the General Government of 600,000 tons of bread grain; you are referred to the fact that the General Government by this achievement alone covers the raising of the bread ration in the Greater German Reich by two-thirds during the present rationing period. This enormous achievement can rightfully be claimed by us." (2233-2-PS)

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(2) Resettlement projects. Although Himmler was given general authority in connection with the conspirators' program to resettle various districts in the conquered Eastern territories with racial Germans, projects relating to resettling districts in the

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General Government were submitted to and approved by Frank. On 4 August 1942, for example, the plan to resettle Zamosc and Lublin was reported to him by State Secretary Krueger:

"State Secretary Krueger then continues, saying that the Reichsfuehrer's next immediate plan until the end of the following year would be to settle the following German racial groups in the two districts (Zamosc and Lublin): 1000 peasant settlements (1 settlement per family of about 6) for Bosnian Germans; 1200 other kinds of settlements; 1000 settlements for Bessarabian Germans; 200 for Serbian Germans; 2000 for Leningrad Germans; 4000 for Baltic Germans; 500 for. Wolhynia Germans; and 200 settlements for Flemish, Danish and Dutch Germans: in all 10,000 settlements for 50,000 persons" (2233-T-PS). Frank directed that:

the resettlement plan is to be discussed cooperatively by the competent authorities and declared his willingness to approve the final plan by the end of September after satisfactory arrangements had been made concerning all the questions appertaining thereto (in particular the guaranteeing of peace and order) so that by the middle of November, as the most favorable time, the resettlement can

begin.” (2233-T-PS) The way in which the resettlement at Zamosc was carried out was described to Frank at a meeting at Warsaw on 25 January 1943 by State Secretary Krueger:

“When we settled about the first 4000 in Kreis Zamosc shortly before Christmas I had an opportunity to speak to these people.

It is understandable that in resettling this area we did not make friends of the Poles.

In colonizing this territory with racial Germans, we are forced to chase out the Poles.

We are removing those who constitute a burden in this new colonization territory. Actually, they are the asocial and inferior elements. They are being deported, first brought to a concentration camp, and then sent as labor to the Reich. From a Polish propaganda standpoint this entire first action has had an unfavorable effect. For the Poles say: After the Jews have been destroyed then they will employ the same methods to get the Poles out of this territory and liquidate

them just like the Jews.” (2233-AA-PS) Although the illegality of this dispossession of Poles to make room for German settlers was clear, and although the fact that the Poles were not only being dispossessed but taken off to con



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