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Regarding the General Strike in Copenhagen, the Fuehrer says that the only weapon to deal with terror is terror. Court martial proceedings create martyrs. History shows that the names of such men are on everybody's lips, whereas there is silence with regard to the many thousands who have lost their lives in similar circumstances without court martial proceedings.” (C-171).

(5) Use of Concentration Camp Labor in Shipyards. In a memorandum signed by Doenitz sometime late in 1944, which was distributed to Hitler, Keitel, Jodl, Speer, and the Supreme Command of the Air Force, Doenitz reviews German shipping losses, and concludes:

“Furthermore, I propose reinforcing the shipyard working parties by prisoners from the concentration camps and as a special measure for relieving the present shortage of coppersmiths, especially in U-boat construction, I propose to divert coppersmiths from the construction of locomotives to ship

building." (C-195) In dealing with sabotage, Doenitz has this to say:

"Since, elsewhere, measures for exacting atonement taken against whole working parties amongst whom sabotage occurred, have proved successful, and, for example, the shipyard sabotage in France was completely suppressed, possibly similar measures for the Scandinavian countries will come

under consideration." (C-195) Item 2 of the summing-up reads:

“12,000 concentration camp prisoners will be employed in the shipyards as additional labor (security service [SD]

agrees to this)” (C-195). It was not for nothing that at these meetings Himmler and his Lieutenants, Fegelein and Kaltenbrunner, were present.

They were not there to discuss U-boats or the use of battleships. It is clear from this document that Doenitz knew all about concentration camps and concentration camp labor, and as one of the rulers of Germany he must bear his full share of that responsibility.

(6) Doenitz's Incitement of Ruthless Conduct By His Men. The orders issued by Doenitz in April 1945 (D-650) show his fanatical adherence to the Nazi creed, and his preparedness even at that stage to continue a hopeless war at the expense of human life, and with the certainty of increased destruction and misery to his country:

"I therefore demand of the commanding officers of the Navy:
That they clearly and unambiguously follow the path of mili-
tary duty, whatever may happen. I demand of them that they
stamp out ruthlessly all signs and tendencies among the men
which endanger the following of this path.
"I demand from Senior Commanders that they should take
just as ruthless action against any commander who does not
do his military duty. If a commander does not think he has
the moral strength to occupy his position as a leader in this
sense, he must report this immediately. He will then be
used as a soldier in this fateful struggle in some position in
which he is not burdened with any tasks as a leader.” (D-

650) In the secret Battle order of the day of 19 April 1945, Doenitz gives an example of the type of under-officer who should be promoted:

"An example: In a prison camp of the auxiliary cruiser 'Cormorau', in Australia, a petty officer acting as camp senior officer, had all communists who made themselves noticeable among the inmates of the camp systematically done away with in such a way that the guards did not notice. This petty officer is sure of my full recognition for his decision and his execution. After his return, I shall promote him with all means, as he has shown that he is fitted to be a leader." (D650)

E. CONCLUSION.

Doenitz was no plain sailor, playing the part of a service officer, loyally obedient to the orders of the government of the day. He was an extreme Nazi who did his utmost to indoctrinate the Navy and the German people with the Nazi creed. It is no coincidence that it was he—not Goering, not Ribbentrop, not Goebbels, not Himmler-who was chosen to succeed Hitler. He played a large part in fashioning the U-boat fleet, one of the most deadly weapons of aggressive war. He helped to plan and execute aggressive wars, which he knew well were in deliberate violation of treaties. He was ready to stoop to any ruse where he thought he would not be found out: breaches of the Geneva Convention or of neutrality, where it might be asserted that sinking was due to a mine. He was ready to order, and did order, the murder of helpless survivors of sunken ships, an action only paralleled by that of his Japanese ally.

There can be few countries which do not mourn for men of the

merchant navies whose destruction was due to the callow bru. tality with which, at the orders of this man, the German U-boats did their work.

LEGAL REFERENCES AND LIST OF DOCUMENTS

RELATING TO KARL DOENITZ

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Letter signed by Jodl, 19 October
1942, concerning Hitler's explana-
tion of his commando order of the
day before (Document 498-PS).
(USA 542).....

III
Top secret notice, 10 May 1943,
concerning saboteurs captured and
shot in Norway. (USA 502)...... III
Diary of the Navy, 1944, by
Admiral Doenitz. (GB 184).. IV
Decree relating to Status of Su-
preme Commanders of Army and
Navy, 25 February 1938. 1938
Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, p. 215.
(GB 206).....

IV
Extracts from The Archive. (GB
187)..

V
Certificate of positions held by
Doenitz, 8 November 1945. (USA

V
Affidavit of Gerhard Wagner,
Nurnberg, 19 November 1945, who
identified document C-158 as ex-
pressing opinion of Doenitz and
initialled by him....

V
Interrogation of Doenitz, 3 No-
vember 1945..

V
Interrogation of Falkenhorst, 24
October 1945...

V
"Churchill Sank the Athenia",
published in Voelkischer Beobach-
ter, 23 October 1939. (GB 218)... V
Memorandum to Supreme Com-
mand of the Navy by Doenitz,
9 October 1939, concerning base in
Norway. (GB 83)

VI
Extracts from file on Intensifica-
tion of U-boat warfare. (GB 194). / VI
Extract from German Naval War

12)..

552

2988-PS

693

3150-PS

911

3151-PS

912

*3260-PS

1008

*C-5

815

*C-21

825

*C-105

69325547–54

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*C-118

916

*C-120

916

*C-122

928

*C-126

932

*C-151

965

*C-158

Diary, 21 December 1940, p. 252.
(GB 455)..

VI
Extract from German Naval file,
18 July 1941, concerning authori-
zation of attacks on U. S. Mer-
chantmen. (GB 195)...

VI
Directives for Armed Forces 1939-
40 for "Fall Weiss”, operation
against Poland. (GB 41)..

VI
Extract from Naval War Diary.
Questionnaire on Norway bases,
3 October 1939. (GB 82)..

VI
Preliminary Time Table for "Fall
Weiss" and directions for secret
mobilisation. (GB 45). ....

VI
Details for execution of operation
"Weseruebung", 3 March 1940,
signed by Doenitz. (GB 91)... VI
Minutes of conference of C-in-C of
Navy with Hitler, 19 and 20 Feb-
ruary 1945. (GB 209)...

VI
Minutes of conference between
Hitler and C-in-C of Navy regard-
ing Copenhagen General Strike,
1 July 1944. (GB 210)....

VI
Order No. 1 for "Fall Weiss"
signed by Doenitz. (GB 189)..... VI
Order of Navy concerning treat-
ment of saboteurs, 11 February
1943. (USA 544)..

VI
Hitler's second decree, 18 October
1942, regarding annihilation of ter-
ror and sabotage units. (USA 543). VI
Demands by defendant Doenitz
on sinking of merchant ships, 22
September 1939. (GB 193).

VI
Report signed by Doenitz, 1944,
giving support to Navy and Mer-
chant Marine. (GB 211)...

VI

971

*C-171

1002

*C-172

1002

*C-178

1012

*C-179

1014

*C-191

1018

*C-195

1022

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