Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

Intelligence Production Center at which time they will be curtailed. The military departments are still performing a collection management function pending assumption of full control of military service intelligence field forces by the unified and specified commanders. As previously discussed on page 22, these commanders are being given increased control over intelligence activities in their components. As this occurs, the collection management function of ACSI, ONI, and AFCIN will be reduced. The military department will continue to perform intradepartmental collection management functions in connection with residual responsibilities. They will still be engaged in the automatic data processing of intelligence until these efforts are integrated under DIA. It is anticipated that the performance of this function at the military department level will begin to phase out during the latter part of 1962, as will the military departments' role in dissemination of military intelligence.

In short, the overall management of military intelligence activities, including the supervision and operation of collection, management, production, and dissemination at the departmental level, will substantially phaseout in the three military departments during fiscal years 1963 and 1964 as DIA assumes responsibility for intelligence functions which have been assigned to it by the Secretary of Defense.

DIA will also assume the function of operating a Defense intelligence school which consolidates the postgraduate courses at the Naval Intelligence School and the Army Strategic Intelligence School.

DEFENSE SUPPLY AGENCY (DSA)

These functions now performed by the military departments relating to wholesale supply responsibilities currently assigned to DSA as indicated above, but not yet assumed by DSA, will be absorbed by DSA as complete responsibilities are assumed by DSA. These areas include the petroleum, general, industrial, construction, automotive, and electrical/electronic supplies areas (all of which are in various stages of implementation), and the consolidation of the Army and Marine Corps clothing factories under DSA.

SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS

The subcommittee began its hearings on June 4, 1962. It held 11 formal meetings, and received testimony from the following persons:

Hon. Robert S. McNamara, the Secretary of Defense.

Hon. Cyrus Vance, former General Counsel of the Department of Defense, and presently the Secretary of the Army.

Lt. Gen. Andrew T. McNamara, Director, Defense Supply Agency.

Rear Adm. Joseph M. Lyle, Deputy Director, Defense Supply Agency.

Mr. Clarence Short, Special Assistant to the Director, Defense Supply Agency.

Mr. Robert Moot, Comptroller, Defense Supply Agency:
Rear Adm. W. D. Irvin, Director, Defense Communications Agency.
Lt. Gen. Joseph F. Carroll, Director, Defense Intelligence Agency.

Lt. Gen. William W. Quinn, Deputy Director, Defense Intelligence Agency.

Rear Adm. Samuel B. Frankel, Chief of Staff, Defense Intelligence Agency. Maj. Gen. R. H. Booth, Chief, Defense Atomic Support Agency. Vice Adm. L. H. Frost, Director, National Security Agency.

Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer, U.S. Army, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Gen. George H. Decker, U.S. Army, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army. Gen. David M. Shoup, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps.

Adm. George W. Anderson, Jr., U.S. Navy, Chief of Naval Operations.

Gen. F. H. Smith, Jr., USAF, Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force.

Mr. Solis Horwitz, Director of Organization and Management Studies, Office of the General Counsel, Department of Defense.

Hon. Thomas D. Morris, Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logistics), Department of Defense.

Hon. Paul H. Riley, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Supply and Services), Department of Defense.

Hon. Paul H. Nitze, Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs), Department of Defense.

Dr. Harold Brown, Director of Defense Research and Engineering.

Lt. Gen. William P. Ennis, Director of Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, Department of Defense.

Mr. Vincent F. Caputo, Director for Transportation and Warehousing, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logistics), Department of Defense.

Lt. Col. John E. Murray, U.S. Army, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logistics), Department of Defense.

In addition, the subcommittee held informal meetings with distinguished military personnel who preferred to remain anonymous. They provided invaluable information and guidance.

BACKGROUND

For a proper understanding of the issues involved, it is first necessary to review certain provisions of the National Security Act dealing with the Department of Defense. The pertinent provisions are as follows:

(National Security Act of 1947, Public Law 80–253, 61 Stat. 495)

DECLARATION OF POLICY

Sec. 2. In enacting this legislation, it is the intent of Congress to provide a comprehensive program for the future security of the United States; to provide for the establishment of integrated policies and procedures for the departments, agencies, and functions of the Government relating to the national security; to provide a Department of Defense, including the three military Departments of the Army, the Navy (including naval aviation and the United States Marine Corps), and the Air Force under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense; to provide that each military department shall be separately organized under its own Secretary and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense; to provide for their unified direction under civilian control of the Secretary of Defense but not to merge these departments or services; to provide for the establishment of unified or specified combatant commands, and a clear and direct line of command to such commands; to eliminate unnecessary duplication in the Department of Defense, and particularly in the field of research and engineering by vesting its overall direction and control in the Secretary of Defense; to provide more effective, efficient, and economical administration in the Department of Defense; to provide for the unified strategic direction of the combatant forces, for their operation under unified command, and for their integration into an efficient team of land, naval, and air forces but not to establish a single Chief of Staff over the armed forces nor an overall armed forces general staff.

TITLE II—THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

SEC. 201. *

(b) There shall be within the Department of Defense (1) the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, and each such department shall on and after the date of enactment of the National

Security Act Amendments of 1949 be military departments in lieu of their prior status as Executive Departments, and (2) all other agencies created under title II of this Act.

The following sections are codified in title 10, United States Code, Public Law 1028, 84th Congress:

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

8 3062. (b) In general, the Army, within the Department of the Army, includes land combat and service forces and such aviation and water transport as may be organic therein. It shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land. It is responsible for the preparation of land forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Army to meet the needs of war.

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

8 5012. (a) The Navy, within the Department of the Navy, includes, in general, naval combat and service forces and such aviation as may be organic therein. The Navy shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations at sea. It is responsible for the preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and is generally responsible for naval reconnaissance, antisubmarine warfare, and protection of shipping.

(b) All naval aviation shall be integrated with the naval service as part thereof within the Department of the Navy. Naval aviation consists of combat and service and training forces, and includes land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy, and the entire remainder of the aeronautical organization of the Navy, together with the personnel necessary therefor.

(c) The Navy shall develop aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements. Matters of joint concern as to these functions shall be coordinated between the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy.

(d) The Navy is responsible, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Navy to meet the needs of war.

$ 5013. (a) The Marine Corps, within the Department of the Navy, shall be so organized as to include not less than three combat divisions and three air wings, and such other land combat, aviation, and other services as may be organic therein. The Marine Corps shall be organized, trained, and equipped to provide fleet marine forces of combined arms, together with supporting air components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval base and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. In addition, the Marine Corps shall provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy shall provide security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases, and shall perform such other duties as the President may direct. However, these additional duties may not detract from or interfere with the operations for which the Marine Corps is primarily organized.

(b) The Marine Corps shall develop, in coordination with the Army and the Air Force, those phases of amphibious operations that pertain to the tactics, technique, and equipment used by landing forces.

(c) The Marine Corps is responsible, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of peacetime components of the Marine Corps to meet the needs of war.

DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

$ 8062. (c) In general, the Air Force includes aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned. It shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. It is responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war.

(National Security Act of 1947, as amended)

SEC. 202(c) (6).

Whenever the Secretary of Defense determines it will be advantageous to the Government in terms of effectiveness, economy, or efficiency, he shall provide for the carrying out of any supply or service activity common to more than one military department by a single agency or such other organizational entities as he deems appropriate. For the purposes of this paragraph, any supply or service activity common to more than one military department shall not be considered a "major combatant function” within the meaning of paragraph (1) hereof.

SEC. 202(c)(1). *

Within the policy enunciated in section 2, the Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate steps (including the transfer, reassignment, abolition, and consolidation of functions) to provide in the Department of Defense for more effective, efficient, and economical administration and operation and to eliminate duplication. However, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, no function which has been established by law to be performed by the Department of Defense, or any officer or agency thereof, shall be substantially transferred, reassigned, abolished, or consolidated until the expiration of the first period of thirty calendar days of continuous session of the Congress following the date on which the Secretary of Defense reports the pertinent details of the action to be taken to the Armed Services Committees of the Senate and of the House of Representatives.

SEC. 202(c) (4).

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) hereof, the Secretary of Defense has the authority to assign, or reassign, to one or more departments or services, the development and operational use of new weapons or weapons systems.

Sec. 203(b) (1). *

There shall be a Director of Defense Research and Engineering who shall be appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall take precedence in the Department of Defense after the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force. The Director performs such duties with respect to research and engineering as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, including, but not limited to, the following:

(i) to be the principal adviser to the Secretary of Defense on scientific and technical matters ;

(ii) to supervise all research and engineering activities in the Department of Defense; and

(iii) to direct and control (including their assignment or reassignment) research and engineering activities that the Secretary of Defense deems to

require centralized management. The compensation of the Director is that prescribed by law for the Secretaries of the military departments.

(2) The Secretary of Defense or his designee, subject to the approval of the President, is authorized to engage in basic and applied research projects essential to the responsibilities of the Department of Defense in the field of basic and applied research and development which pertain to weapons systems and other military requirements. The Secretary or his designee, subject to the approval of the President, is authorized to perform assigned research and development projects : by contract with private business entities, educational or research institutions, or other agencies of the Government, through one or more of the military departments, or by utilizing employees and consultants of the Department of Defense.

(3) There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection.

Certain facts are clear:

1. The Congress intends that there be a Department of Defense but that that Department will include the three military Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.

2. These Departments are under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense.

3. Each military Department shall be separately organized under its own Secretary, and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense.

4. These Departments, and the four military services, are not to be merged.

5. Unnecessary duplication is to be eliminated, particularly in the field of research and engineering, by vesting its overall direction and control in the Secretary of Defense.

6. The combatant forces are to be integrated into an efficient team of land, naval, and air forces, but that there shall not be a single Chief of Staff over the Armed Forces, nor an overall Armed Forces General Staff.

In addition, the law, as stated above, establishes the roles and missions of each of the separate services.

The Army, under its broad roles and missions is to be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land.

The Navy is to be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations at sea. In addition, the law provides that, The Navy shall develop aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements. Matters of joint concern as to these functions shall be coordinated between the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy.

The Marine Corps is to be organized, trained, and equipped to provide fleet marine forces of combined arms, together with supporting air components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. In addition, the law specifically states thatThe Marine Corps shall develop, in coordination with the Army and the Air Force, those phases of amphibious operations that pertain to the tactics, technique, and equipment used by landing forces.

And under the law, the Air Force shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations.

The law also requires the Secretary of Defense, subject to the policy statement, to take appropriate steps (including the transfer, reassignment, abolition, and consolidation of functions to provide in the Department of Defense for more effective, efficient, and economical administration and operation and to eliminate duplication.

The law further provides, with certain very notable exceptions, thatno function which has been established by law to be performed by the Department of Defense, or any officer or agency thereof, shall be substantially transferred, reassigned, abolished, or consolidated until the expiration of the first period of 30 calendar days of continuous session of the Congress following the

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »