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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1986.
FISCAL YEAR 1987 ARMY POSTURE
HON. JOHN O. MARSH, JR., SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
Today the committee considers the budget estimates of the Department of the Army for fiscal year 1987. The total Army budget considered by this subcommittee is $76,920,500,000, an increase of $7,454,085,000, or 10.7 percent over the $69,466,415,000 appropriated to date for fiscal year 1986 after the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings suquestration.
We are pleased to welcome back to the committee our former colleague and friend the Hon. John O. Marsh, Secretary of the Army. We also welcome back General John A. Wickham, Chief of Staff of the Army
In the interest of time, Mr. Secretary and General Wickham, we will have your entire statements placed in the record. They have been made available to the committee and have been read. We will ask you to make whatever brief opening remarks you wish.
(CLERK'S NOTE.—The joint statement by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army will be printed at the end of this hearing. See page 186.]
Mr. ADDABBO. This morning's hearing will be open. This afternoon's hearing will be closed so that classified programs can be discussed.
Gentlemen, please summarize your statements for us. They will be placed in the record in their entirety.
SUMMAKY STATEMENT OF SECRETARY MARSH Secretary MARSH. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Young, it is a pleasure to appear again before the committee.
If I could quickly summarize the Army's presentation, I would say to you that it is the threat that is the primary driver of your Army budget. [Slide 1.] The nature of that threat determines the nature and the category of much of our equipment.
[Slide 2.) If you look at the Soviet ground forces, you will see that you are dealing with 199 divisions of which some 40 to 50 divisions are category A divisions. These divisions have most of their manpower and all their equipment. You will find most of those are in Eastern Europe as part of the Warsaw Pact forces.
[Slide 3.] Their equipment is not ox-cart quality, by any means. You see the Frog 7, which came into the inventory in 1966. It has a range of 70 kilometers. About 500 Frogs and SS 21s are positioned opposite NATO.
[Slide 4.] Armor remains a significant portion of their main battle forces. They have some 52,000 tanks. Here you see the T-64. They have 10,000 in their inventory. This tank has never been deployed by forces other than the Soviet army.
[Slide 5.] Here you see the 1970 version, the T-72. They have produced about 18,000 of these tanks. Thirty-three hundred have found their way into the foreign military sales program. These vehicles have a 125 millimeter smooth-bore cannon.
[Slide 6.] The newest tank is the T-80. They have produced 3,300 of those and none of those have been deployed outside the Soviet army. They have the capability of producing a minimum of 2,500 tanks in any one year.
Nor are they short on the armored personnel carriers.
[Slide 7.] Here you see the BMP. They have 60,000 of these. Some 30,000 are directed toward the NATO forces. If you look at that vehicle, it carries 11 people, including a crew of three, has a 73 millimeter cannon, and a guide rail for launching an antitank missile.
[Slide 8.] In their inventory, you will find seven airborne divisions.
They have not neglected their air defense capabilities. [Slide 9.] Here you see the mechanized ZSU 23-4, an upgrade of the ZSU gun used so effectively in Viet Nam. However, it was a towed vehicle.
[Slide 10.] In their helicopter inventory, you find the Hind, probably one of the most heavily armed helicopters in the world. Twelve of them are in Nicaragua.
Their activities are not confined just to the Soviet Union. We know that they push their equipment hard through the foreign military sales program.
[Slide 11.) Some 20,000 Soviet military advisory personnel can be found in 30 countries in the world providing training and support for Soviet equipment. Soviet forces abroad are not always used to support sales of Soviet equipment. [Slide 12.] For example, in Afghanistan, 115,000 Soviet troops are using modern equipment and airmobile concepts against the Afghan Freedom Fighters.
[Slide 13.] The Soviets are active in our hemisphere. This is a photograph of the second largest intelligence station operated by the Soviets in the world. Located in Cuba, it has tremendous interception capability throughout the Caribbean.
ÎSlide 14.) In Central America, their activities have introduced the T-54, T-55 Soviet tank. Better than 100 of those armored vehicles can be found today in Nicaragua.
Also in Nicaragua you will find the MI-8, the troop-carrying helicopter with a crew of three and a capability of carrying 26 people.
[Slide 15.] At the centerpiece of our budget request is the focus on the American soldier. Ninety-one percent of those soldiers that came in last year were high school graduates. General Wickham will describe more about their performance, training, and contributions to our force.
[Slide 16.] You mentioned our budget figure of $80.6 billion. It is broken down into a budget pie as military personnel, $28.6 billion, research and development, 7 percent, procurement, $18.6 million, MILCON–Military Construction, $2.4 billion, and O&M-Operation and Maintenance, $25.2. Thirteen percent of the Army budget is going to go into the Reserve Component, over $10 billion. You see the breakdowns for the various categories of the budget.
Notwithstanding the attention we are giving our light forces, in structuring the Army force and in our budget request, there is a continuing emphasis on heavy forces. [Slide 17.) In our heavy force composition, you are going to find 12 of the Active Army's divisions and nine of the National Guard divisions. On the lighter side of the force, six light divisions are in the Active Army and one light division is in the National Guard.
[Slide 18.] Why the emphasis on light forces? Because from 20 to 22 insurgencies or conflicts are being waged in various parts of the world. Most are the type of conflicts that lend themselves to light infantry forces.
Light infantry forces are reflected in the infantry divisions, but also you will see emphasis on special operations forces and a ramping up to better than 13,000 active soldiers by 1991. [Slide 19.] By that time, there will be five active Special Forces groups and four in the Reserve Component.
[Slide 20.) A Ranger regiment of three battalions is already in being, manifesting continuing emphasis in this area of the military spectrum
[Slide 21.] I mentioned to you earlier reserve forces. I point out that if you were looking at the balances between the forces for the year 1991 on our current ramp, your active force would be 781,000 and the selected reserve forces, not counting the IRR, would be 837,000. Today the ratio is about one for one between Guard and Reserve and the active force. This shows our continuing emphasis in that area.
[Slide 22.] Last year, some 27,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists trained outside the Continental United States.
[Slide 23.) They went to Egypt and participated in Bright Star. Ten thousand National Guardsmen from ten different states built 26 miles of road in Panama. This year we will find better than 30,000 National Guard and Reserve soldiers engaged in similar exercises in all parts of the world.
ARMY CAPABILITIES AND NEEDS
[Slide 24.) General Wickham will say more about the Army capabilities and what has been achieved. But I emphasize the enormous
contributions made through realistic training to prepare people for combat situations. [Slide 25.] Included in that is chemical warfare training in defensive types of chemical warfare equipment. The point we are trying to make is that we are continuing to emphasize the need for a binary capability in order to keep chemical weapons off the battlefield so that we do not have to impede people with this type of gear.
[Slide 26.] If you were to ask, what does the Army need, we have a continuing need from our sister services for airlift and sealift. [Slide 27.]
In the area of modernization, just to address this very quickly, I want to thank the committee for many, many things that you have done. It is very graphically demonstrated that your dollars in these areas have had an enormous consequence. [Slide 28.]
This is a depot at Mannheim and shortly that depot will look like this depot. [Slide 29.] These motor parks make a contribution to efficiency and morale of the forces.
[Slide 30.] General Wickham will speak more about sustainability. I call to your attention to the ramps upward achieved in our war reserve stocks. These stocks are very critical from the standpoint of our forces.
[Slide 31.] You may recall that in 1983 we made a fundamental choice in the Army; we would fix the active end strength of the Army at 781,000. We are fixing the civilian employment level at about 410,000 people.
Within this 781,000 active force, we are trying to modernize and build a force of capable people that are well equipped and well led to attain the leverage to create a force that has an enormous capability greater than their numbers. [Slide 32.] That is necessary because today we see the Soviets employing massive forces deployed in echelons. We need to see deep, hear deep and strike deep as a part of the Airland Battle doctrine.
[Slide 33.] I leave with you a quote from President Monroe that “if it was wise and patriotic for us to establish a free government, it is equally wise to attend to the necessary means of its preservation.” We are grateful to this committee for what you have done to assist the Army in that regard.
[The slides used by Secretary Marsh during his presentation and his prepared statement follow:)