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and the order of their march, will pass thirty-six feet wide, with double silver before our hasty review.
pillars,+ and covered with a curtain of 1. The Tabernacle. This wonderful rich embroidery. and superb structure was erected as the When we draw aside this curtain and palace and presence chamber of God, enter the court, the first object that their king and conductor. Moses re- strikes our attention is, the altar of ceived, in the mount, the most exact burnt offering, standing near the middle directions as to the form, size, and of the court. Here the sacrifices were materials, of this place; and it was killed, and the burnt offerings conrepeatedly enjoined on him, that it sumed. The fire on this altar, originally should be reared according to the fashion kindled from heaven, was kept continuhe had seen in the mount.—Ex. XXV. &c. ally burning. Near to this was the
In order to provide the materials for brazen laver, in which the priests this costly erection, God directed, in the washed when about to engage in divine first place, that the people should be service. Beyond these, and at the numbered, and that every man above western extremity of the court, was the age of twenty should pay half a what was properly called the Tabershekel, a piece of silver about fifteen nacle, or the sanctuary.
This was pence of our money. This sum from thirty cubits, or fifty-four feet long, 603,550 persons, their number, would ten cubits wide, and ten high. Boards produce about £38,000., a sum far infe- of cedar or acacia wood, overlaid with rior to what was needed; but God re- gold, and inserted in sockets of silver quired that all his people should do fixed in the earth, constituted its walls, something for his house. After this, an which went round three sides. These, appeal was made to the free-will offer- when inserted in their sockets and ings of the people, and so willing and fastened together with bars covered wealthy were they, that of gold, and with gold, running through rings or silver, and precious stones, and brass; staples of gold, made a firm golden of blue, and purple, and fine linen, spun wall eighteen feet high. The covering and woven by the women; and of every of this was exquisite, and fourfold. requisite, more than enough was pro- First, were curtains of fine twined vided; so that a proclamation was linen, on which were pictures of the made through the camp, that their gifts cherubim, wrought in blue, and purple,
Ex. xxx. 13, & xxxvi. 6. and scarlet. This covering went over Under the direction of two divinely- the top, from end to end, and hung skilled workmen, Bezaleel, of Judah, down on the outside, within a foot of and Aholiab, of Dan, the whole of the the ground, and formed the ceiling of structure with its appurtenances, was the sanctuary. Upon this was a covercompleted by a willing people in about ing of goat's hair, a sort of strong cam. five months.
let cloth, which extended to the ground In surveying the Tabernacle, we will on each side. Above the camlet was begin with the outer court, and proceed a covering of ram skins with wool dyed afterward to the sanctuary. The outer red; and upon the top, a covering of court, open to the sky, was a long badger skins, or, as some suppose, a square, running from east to west. It kind of leather impervious to the rain was 100 cubits* or 182.4 feet long, and fifty or weather. cubits, or ninety-one feet, broad. This This tabernacle, within, was divided was enclosed by pillars of brass nine into two parts. The inner apartment was feet high, and about the same distance ten cubits, or eighteen feet, every way, apart, inserted in brazen sockets firmly a perfect cube, and was called, "the planted in the earth. Upon these pillars, holiest of all.” It was divided from by means of silver hooks and fillets of the sanctuary by four golden pillars, on silver, the chapiters were also silver, was which were hung the second veil, of a hanging of fine twined linen, so as most costly workmanship. There was to present the appearance of a wall also a curtain at the entrance of the nine feet high, enclosing the whole sanctuary, so that when they were both court. The entrance into this court down they would be like two rooms was at the east end, twenty cubits, or eighteen feet high; one, thirty-six feet
* The cubit is taken at 21.8 inches.
by eighteen, and the other eighteen idea of its sumptuousness, in a few
words. Of the outer garments, the enter the first and larger first was the Ephod, which consisted of apartment, the curtain of which was two pieces of linen richly embroidered generally lifted up, we shall see on the with gold, and blue, and scarlet. These right hand a table overlaid with gold, were clasped on the shoulders; and on on which were twelve loaves and vessels each clasp was an onyx stone, on which for wine: this was called the table of were engraven the names of the twelve the shew bread. On the opposite side tribes, six on each. Then followed the stands the golden candlestick, with robe of the Ephod, entirely of blue, exseven branches of superb structure, tending below the knee, and wrought weighing 125 pounds. In the centre, in a circular form, with an aperture for but rather more backward, is the altar the head and the arms, so as to depend of incense, or golden altar, where the gracefully from the shoulders, below the priest ministered before the Lord daily. clasps of the Ephod. The fringe of the
Lifting up the second veil, we enter robe was a wreath of pomegranates of the symbol of heaven, the residence of different colours, and between each were God himself. There is the ark, a chest golden bells. The girdle of the Ephod of precious wood overlaid with gold, in was curiously wrought. He also wore which are deposited the tables of the a rich breast-plate fastened with rings law, a pot of manna, and Aaron's rod and chains of gold to the shoulders and that budded. This chest is covered the girdle. In this were twelve prewith a lid of solid gold, with a border cious stones, arranged in four rows, of the finest workmanship, called the
with the name of a tribe engraven on mercy seat; and upon it are the cherub- each. The mitre was costly, and a ims extending their wings over the plate of gold was upon it, on which mercy seat, and there is no light in this was engraven,
Holiness to the Lord.” place but what comes from the bright The high priest, therefore, by the dress shekinah, the cloud of glory, the visible he wore, would at all times be distinsymbol of the Divine presence. Such guishable from the others, except on was the tabernacle. Into the sanctuary the day of atonement. or holy place none were permitted to The appointments of the Levites, enter but the priests: and into the were generally to assist the priests, to holiest of all, none could pass but the take charge of the tabernacle, and to high priest, and he only once a year bear its various parts when the encampwith the blood of the atonement. From ment removed. Each family had its behind the second veil God was accus- allotment, and its office; so that, in a tomed to speak audibly for the instruc- very short time, and without confusion, tion of his servants. When the taber- the whole could be taken up for renacle was reared, God honored it in a moval, or fixed, and set up. The Lemost signal manner, by causing the vites were all sacred persons, set apart pillar of cloud to cover it, and filling for the general service of God, the inthe place with his glory.
struction of the people, and the assis2. The Vestments of the Priests, tance of the priests in the sacrifices (who were exclusively of the house of and service of the tabernacle. Aaron,) claim a passing notice. These We shall not attempt to give a comwere generally of fine linen. The plete account of the various sacrifices outer garment consisted of a tunic or and festivals of the Jews, but glance at robe, extending to the feet, bound round the most prominent. The burnt offerthe waist with a curiously wrought ing, or as it was sometimes called, “ the girdle of needlework; and a mitre or whole burnt offering,” was the most turban of the same material. The dress complete that any individuals offered. of the high priest, on the day of expia. In this case the offerer brought a male tion, when he went into the most holy animal without blemish, into the court, place, was of the same kind as that of to the altar before the Lord, and laid the ordinary priests, being entirely his hand on its head, as a sacrifice for composed of linen. But, in his ordi- himself; by this means symbolizing a nary administrations in the sanctuary, transfer of his own sins to the head of his apparel was of the most superb the victim. It was then slain, and its order. It is hardly possible to give an blood sprinkled upon the altar; and,
according to the directions of the law, previous to this latter feast day, was its whole body was consumed with fire. the great day of atonement. From In the case of sin offerings, trespass even to even, the people were to fast offerings, a similar form obtained, only and afflict their souls: and then it was a part of the sacrifice was appointed as when the high priest went into the the food of the priests and their helpers. most holy place, with the blood of the All the sacrifices under the law, where sacrifice to make atonement, because of life was taken away, by whatever name the sins of the people. These are some they were designated, were of an of the chief sacred seasons of the piatory character; and indeed no ani- Israelites, which were appointed of God mal was allowed to be slain for food, by Moses. without its blood being presented We do not stay to notice the Sabbath before the Lord for an atonement. of years when the land was to have Every known sin, in individuals, was rest; nor the Jubilee, the fiftieth year, to be expiated by sacrifice. Sacrifices when it returned to its original possesof a general character were offered for sors, and the bondsmen of the Hebrew the people at large. Every morning nation were to be liberated; nor do we exand evening a lamb was offered by the patiate on the general laws which were priest, as the daily sacrifice; and on the given for the government of the people, Sabbath day, two lambs were offered further than to state, that they were in the same manner; so that, at no characterized by great wisdom and season, could the pious Hebrew turn equity, and were beautifully adapted to his face to the tabernacle, and remem- the condition of the people on whom ber his God, and pray to him, without they were imposed, and to keep them looking to him through sacrifice. apart from the idolatrous nations by
There were also many special seasons whom they were surrounded. of solemn festivity.
These were all 3. Let us notice for a moment the marked by sacrifice. The new moons, form of their encampment and the order and every solemn assembly. There of their march in the desert.
In doing three great festivals, this, the tabernacle is to be regarded as when all the adult males were expected the centre of the camp, on which stands to present themselves and their offer- the pillar of the cloud. The Levites ings before the Lord. These were, the were stationed nearest the tabernacle. passover, the pentecost, and the feast It was their charge. The three famiof tabernacles. The passover was in- lies into which they were divided stituted in commemoration of their de- occupying the posts at the three sides : liverance from Egypt; it was also called the family of Gershom, consisting of the feast of unleavened bread, as from 7,500 men, were on the west side; that the fifteenth to the twenty-first of the of Kohath, whose men numbered 8,600, month Abib, answering to our April, on the south; and that of Merari, which they eat only unleavened bread. The had 6,200, on the north. At suitable feast of pentecost, was seven weeks after distances, Moses, Aaron, and his sons the passover; it was a feast of first
were at the east, guarding the entrance. fruits, when first fruits were presented, To the east were the tribes of Judah, and thanks offered to God for the Issachar, and Zebulon; to the south, promise of harvest.
Burnt offerings those of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; to and sacrifices were then freely offered the west, Ephraim, Manasseh, and to God. The feast of tabernacles was Benjamin; and to the north, Dan, held for eight days in the month of Asher, and Napthali. The plain of Tishri, answering to our September and encampment was nearly four square. October, when the fruits of the field Each section of three tribes formed, in and vintage had been gathered in. It a sense, a separate division; and the is called the feast of gathering. The whole were an immense multitude, people then constructed booths to dwell as, besides the Levites, there were and feast in, in commemoration of 603,550 men. The prince of each tribe their journey through the desert, when had his standard erected on his pavilthey dwelt in tents. This was a time ion; and also the chief of every family. of great rejoicing amongst the Hebrews, The whole space occupied by the enand the greatest number of sacrifices campment, was necessarily very exwere offered at this feast. Five days tensive; and as the tents and booths
were ranged in regular and appointed before thee.” The trumpets blew a order, they would present the aspect of third time, and Ephraim, Manasseh, an immense city, with its streets and and Benjamin proceeded; and at the courts, rather than anything else. Con- fourth blast, Dan, Asher, and Napthali templating them from an eminence, as brought up the rear. When the cloud thus orderly in their divisions and ar- again descended, the encampment was rangements, Balaam, the false prophet, formed as before described ; and as the exclaimed, “How goodly are thy tents, ark was set down in its place, Moses O Jacob; and thy tabernacles, O`Israel! exclaimed, “Return O Lord, unto the As the valleys they spread forth, as gar
thousand thousands of Israel.” So dens by the river's side, as the trees exact and complete was the order of which the Lord hath planted !"
their march ! Nor was the order of their march and Before, however, we proceed to trace progress less exact.
The cloud upon
their progress, we must tarry one mothe tabernacle was their guide. When ment, to notice the very princely ofit was raised up from off the sacred ferings brought by the princes of the place, it was an intimation from God to tribes, for the service and honor of God, them to proceed. Their arrangements
at the dedication of the altar. They were such as to enable them, with com- brought first, six covered wagons, and parative promptitude, to obey the first twelve oxen, two to each wagon; these directions of Jehovah. As regards the were given to the Levites: two wagons tabernacle; when Aaron and his sons and four oxen, to the family of Gershom: had covered over the sacred vessels of and four wagons and eight oxen, to the sanctuary and the holy place, every that of Merari, as they had to transport family in the tribe of Levi, knew its the heavier materials of the tabernacle : allotted portion of the burden. Staves to the Kohathites, who carried on their were attached to the ark, the table of shoulders the most holy things, as the shew bread, and the different instru- ark, the table of shew bread, the candlements for worship, by which they could stick, and the altar of incense, were easily be borne by the Levites; and none given as they would not need the whole encampment, in the space
them. The princes then offered in of a few hours after the command had twelve successive days. These offerbeen given with silver trumpets, pro- ings were alike. This was the ofvided for the purpose, would be seen fering, one silver charger of the slowly moving onward. When the weight of 130 shekels,* one silver bowl trumpets blew first, the standard and of seventy shekels, both full of fine tribe of Judah, now recognized as the flour mingled with oil for a meat leading and most powerful tribe, set offering. One golden spoon of ten out; and Issachar, and Zebulon, moved shekels, full of incense: one young after him : when the trumpets blew a bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first second time, Reuben, Simeon, and Gad year for a burnt offering: one kid of followed: then, in the centre of the the goats for a sin offering: and for a line, followed the Levites, bearing the sacrifice of peace offering, two oxen, various parts of the tabernacle and the five rams, five he-goats, five lambs of ark: and when the ark was borne from the first year.” Such were the offerings the earth, Moses cried aloud, “Rise, freely laid on the altar of the Lord. Lord, and let thine enemies be scat
(To be continued.) tered; and let them that hate thee flee
* A shekel is about joz. troy.
BAPTISM IN ITS MODE AND SUBJECTS.
abounds with strange anomalies. Nor By ALEXANDER CARSON, L. L. D., is this the case only in connection with Minister of the Gospel. London :
the vagrancies of undisciplined minds, Houlston and Stoneman, 65, Pater- but may be distinctly traced in the noster Row.
productions of intellects, chastened and The history of mental developments invigorated by the severest application.
Such anomalies, there can be no doubt, cannot be opposed to the design and will of are to some extent the results of abor- Christ, may be concluded from his own detive efforts to understand what, in the
claration, “ Suffer little children to come present state, transcends human com
unto me, and forbid them not." prehension. Mostly, however, they are
“ The most decisive reason is the following, associated with moral causes. That
Christ did not ordain infant baptism exsuch causes are too frequently permitted he had wished children to be excepted, he
pressly; but if in his command to baptize all, to sway the intellectual powers in the
must have expressly said this.” adoption of religious theories, is a truth
Were it not for the influence which palpably and painfully evident; nor is this statement in the least invalidated prejudice exerts over the human mind, by the fact that Divine grace gives a new
we could regard this last sentence in bias to the mind; even the best of men
no other light than as a wilful per
version of the Word of God. Christ are imperfect and ever liable to be imposed upon by the illusions of fancy order of the commission is that men
gave no command to baptize all; the and the force of prejudice. How often it is the case that a process of reasoning must precede the administration of
are first to be instructed, and that faith only augments the triumph of error!
baptism. From the uniform conduct False data being furnished, conclusions are drawn from them as opposed to truth light that this was the meaning which
of the apostles, it is as clear as day. as darkness is to light. Perhaps there are not many subjects which more fully illus- indeed no other meaning can by any
they attached to our Lord's language, trate and confirm these remarks, than possibility be drawn from it without the subject of baptism. Innumerable doing violence even to common sense. examples, involving the most palpable contradictions, might, if necessary, be
“ The law of Christ, (says Doddridge,) adduced. Let the following suffice :
requires that all who believe the Gospel
should be baptized ; i. e., should be separated “Immersion is peculiarly agreeable to the from unbelievers, and joined to the visible institution of Christ, and to the practice of Christian Church, by being solemnly washed the apostolical Church, and so even John
It is the duty of baptized, and immersion remained common those by whom baptism is to be administered for a long time after; except that in the
to make diligent inquiry into the character third century, or perhaps earlier, the baptism of those whom they admit to it, whether of the sick (baptisma clinicorum) was per- they have a competent knowledge of the formed by sprinkling or affusion. Still some
Gospel, and give reason to believe they will would not acknowledge this to be true bap- behave in a manner becoming members of the tism, and controversy arose concerning it, Christian Church.
• They both so unheard of was it at that time to baptize went down to the water;' considering how by simple affusion.
frequently bathing was used in those hot have been better to have adhered generally to
countries, it is not to be wondered that the ancient practice, as even Luther and
baptism was generally administered by imCalvin allowed.”
mersion. It would be very unnatural to Again,
suppose that they went down to the water, “Many of the ancient and moderns have merely that Philip might take up a little disapproved of infant baptism.
water his hand to pour on the eunuch. A There is no decisive example of this practice person of his dignity had no doubt, many in the New Testament, for it may be ob. vessels in his baggage, on such a journey, jected against those passages where the bap through so desert a country, a precaution abtism of whole families is mentioned, that it solutely necessary for travellers in those parts, is doubtful whether there were any children and never omitted by them.”—Doddridge's in these families, and if there were, whether Lectures on Pneumatology, Ethics, Bc., pp. they were then baptized.”—Vide Knapp's 324, 325. Expos. p. 29. Christian Theology, pp. 431–4.
That persons of such acknowledged After these plain and straightforward merit as the above should feel compeladmissions, who would imagine that a led to make admissions so distinct, is mind like Dr. Knapp's could for a mo- at once an evidence of the weakness of ment entertain dogmas so flimsy, con- their cause, and that they should, nottradictory, and inconclusive as the withstanding such clear perceptions of following
apostolic precedent, yield to the in. “That infant baptism, considered as a fluence of principles totally of a differsolemn rite of initiation into the Church, ent character, presents a painful proof VOL. 6.-N. S.