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scribed in the book of life; one the bones of untold thousands of untowards whom divine favoritism has believing Jews were left in the desert, been imparted ? but, Do I believe the as tokens of God's righteous disGospel, and love God? and as such pleasure against their iniquity. An was it foreseen by the omniscient epitome of what we judge to be the Jehovah ? and, grounded thereon, did truth may be thus given :he predestinate me to salvation, and That God in his boundless mercy, elect me to all the blessedness of the foreseeing the entrance of sin, deterchristian character ? “ For to mined to provide a remedy for man's many as received him, to them gave misery and guilt ; he resolved to make he power (or privilege) to become the this remedy known to Adam and his sons of God; even to them that be- posterity; he resolved that an interest lieve on his name.”—John i. 12. To in his gracious promises should be come to the evidence of this text is connected with faith in his word ; and much safer than if a man could read he predestinated all whom he foresaw his name in the Lamb's book of life; as believers in his word, and subject for there might be several persons of and obedient to his merciful authority, one name, and the doubt might arise, to everlasting life. And this he rewho was really meant; but, if be solved, that all who were foreseen as lievers are the only elect, then let us unbelievers and disobedient should be seek the evidences of faith, and, having excluded from the benefits of that discovered these, we know that our amnesty which his boundless love had election is of infallible certainty. I made for all mankind. The elect, affirm, that, with this view of predes- are, therefore, such as the apostle tination and election there is not one describes, “ Elect according to the passage in holy writ which will not foreknowledge of God the Father, most fully harmonize, if we but keep through sanctification of the Spirit, distinctly before us the election of unto obedience, and sprinkling of the persons or nations to privileges, and blood of Jesus Christ.”—1 Peter i. 1. the personal election of believers to An examination of scriptural passalvation. The Jewish nation was sages usually brought to support the elected to the most glorious privileges, opposite hypothesis shall (D. v.) rebut only the godly of that nation to ceive full attention in our next. the divine favor and eternal life ; for

HEBREW HISTORY. (No. VI. concluded.) The crossing of Jordan, the falling down enter into league with them. They put of Jericho, and the taking of Ai, caused on old raiment, and took old and mouldy a great consternation amongst the in- provisions, in order to favor the decephabitants of the land; so that the petty tion; and so cleverly did they perform kings in every part began to enter into their part, that they effectually imposed league with each other to fight and upon Joshua and the people, and they subdue the Israelites, as their common entered into treaty with them. After foe. This movement, on their part, the three days, it was discovered, that they sequel will show, accelerated their own resided near, and had deceived them; downfai. So God often “ takes the wise the indignant people called for their in their own craftiness.”

extirpation, according to the letter of But the Gibeonites, who resided the law; but Joshua and the princes about thirty miles south of Gerizim, and declared that their lives must be spared, as many south-west of Gilgal, came to according to the oath, though they the camp, and represented themselves themselves should be reduced to servias having been sent from far to make tude. To this the Gibeonites willingly their submission to the Israelites, and submitted, and their cities, Gibeon, VOL. 6.-2 N. S.

2 (

Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim, and their horses houghed, and their were delivered up. So great was the chariots burned by Joshua, and their terror which had overspread the land ! flying forces chased in every direction.

The news of the submission of Gibeon, The city of Hazor being very strong, for it was a strong city and kingdom, was burnt; but the rest were permitted aroused Adonizedek, the king of Jeru

to stand. The war continued in the salem, or Jebus, whose territory was northern part for some years, and at near; and he sent to the kings of He- length, so small were the kingdoms, and bron, Jarmuth, and Eglon, that they so rich was the country, it was recorded, should join him in attacking Gibeon. that thirty-one kings had been destroyed They immediately came and pitched on this side Jordan. their camp against this city. The Though the land was not completely Gibeonites, seeing their danger, sent to conquered, the division of it was proJoshua for relief, and he, instead of ceeded with, and Judah, who had the leaving them to perish, as their wicked- pre-eminence, and the sons of Joseph, ness would have been thought by some took by lot two of the largest portions. to deserve, went up, directed of God, This first distribution, however, was not travelling in the night, and came upon absolute, for the portion of Ephraim and the enemy suddenly, and smote them, Manasseh was increased ; while a part and they fled. God also poured down of that of Judah was afterwards taken on their devoted heads hail stones from for Simeon and Dan. Some delay, not heaven; so that they were awfully con- explained to us, occurred in the distribusumed in their flight. They were chased tion. Joshua, having set up the taberby the army of Israel; and, as they fled, nacle at Shilo, for divine service, and the five kings hid themselves in a cave assembled the people, complained of at Makkedah, about fourteen miles their tardiness and want of courage, to west of Jerusalem ; a stone was rolled possess the land; and then sent out against the cave's mouth, and a guard some twenty men, to survey the whole set over it, while the main army ad- land, divide it into seven parts, and vanced to cut off the routed enemy, and write it in a book. They returned after prevent their entering .into fortified this survey had been made, and the cities. Oh, the dreadful carnage of that respective tribes received their portion day, and the wonderful triumph of the by lot. In some such way as this the armies of Israel! At their return, the lot was determined :—the names of the kings were brought out of the cave, and seven parts were written on a paper; destroyed. Makkedah was also taken, and also of the seven tribes. These and its king slain on the same day. were put into separate urns, or vessels. The day was not long enough for their Eleazer, the high priest, then drew out work, and Joshua, strengthened by his the name of a tribe from one urn, and confidence in God, commanded the sun Joshua that of a portion from the other. to “stand still ;” and God hearkened to These then went together. Thus "the his voice, and the day was lengthened. lot was cast into the lap; but the disSo wonderful are his ways!

posal thereof was of the Lord.” So the The cities of Libnah, Lachish, Gezer, psalmist exclaims, " He shall choose and Eglon, were subsequently subdued; our inheritance for us.” In a similar Hebron and Debir were secured : so that manner, probably, were the properties all the south country, with the excep- given to the respective families, with tion of the cities of the Philistines, was the exception of one or two illustrious theirs. Thus ended the first great cam- individuals, as Caleb and others. paign.

It may not be improper just to glance The north country would properly at the different allotments of the tribes. call for their next attention; and they Advancing from the wilderness in the were not long before a fit occasion pre- south about forty miles over a space sented itself. A very powerful combi- near thirty miles wide, with the Dead Sea nation of the northern chieftains, under for its eastern border, forming a sort of Jabin, king of Hazor, assembled on the irregular square, was the large and waters of Merom, a small lake, ten hilly territory of Judah; parallel to its miles north of the sea of Galilee. They western border, but extending farther had horses and war chariots, and a south, and east to the Great, or Medigreat force; but they were destroyed, terranean Sea, was the portion of

Simeon; Dan's was rather a small por- Before we discuss this part of our tion, north of Simeon's, bounded on the subject, we may just notice some of the east by Judah and Benjamin; Benja- prophetic language used in the blessing min's inheritance was nearly in the pronounced, both by Jacob and Moses, form of a triangle, having the Dead on the tribes. Thus, both speak of the Sea and Jordan for its base, and its pre-eminence of Judah; and to him perperpendicular or southern boundary tained the largest territory, the rule, line, dividing Jerusalem with Judah. precedence, and the Messiah; and from North of Benjamin were the rich lands him came the very name by which they of Ephraim, and the half-tribe of Manas- are now known, Jews. Both enlarge on seh, extending, in parallel lines, across the multiplication of Joseph. Ephraim from the Jordan to the Great Sea. Is- became a generic term for the ten tribes; sachar's allotment was inland, north of and Manasseh was rich and numerous. Manasseh; and Zebulon extended from Levi was dispersed, as Jacob said; the sea of Galilee, on the east, to the Zebulon, as he foretold, “dwelt in the Great Sea, on the west. Asher and haven of the sea ;" he had two coasts; Naphtali had portions which were north- Asher was rich in mines and produce; ward to Lebanon; the former on the Benjamin was warlike, and the Lord coast of Sidon, and the latter on the dwelt with him; for the temple was Jordan. The whole land, as then di- erected in his part of Mount Zion. vided, comprised about 12,000 square How wonderful the gift of prophecy! miles, or 6,000,000 acres; giving, on how exactly the predictions were fulthe average, about ten acres to every filled! The lot decided; but God preman capable of bearing arms.

knew and overruled all. Our sketch is necessarily imperfect,

Thus the land was divided amongst as the names of several towns, and the the people, according to their tribes and towns themselves, have long since ceased families; and when this was done, to exist; and almost all the maps that Joshua sent them each to their own inare published vary in the minuter de- heritance. The entire land was not details. Enough may be known to ascer. stroyed, else it would have been desolate, tain the general position and territory and the beasts of the field would have of the tribes; and though there may increased upon them; but it was so far seem some inequality in the distribution, subdued, that the respective tribes had it should be remembered, there was not a general and quiet possession. “By an equality either in the fertility of the little and by little,” God hath said, “I soil or the number of persons to be pro- will drive them out before you;” and, vided for. On the whole, the division, according to their faith and their neceswhile it did not occasion discontent sities, this was done. Joshua, therefore, amongst the tribes, was as equitable as reminded them, in departing, that“ there can be imagined. Forty-eight cities failed not ought of any good thing were taken for the Levites, in the pro- which the Lord had spoken unto the portion of four to a tribe, with suburbs house of Israel: all came to pass.” about half a mile round each city. Five, The warriors of Reuben and Gad however, were taken out of Judah, and were dismissed with honor. Joshua, only three from Naphtali. Thus the approving of their fidelity, and comLevites, who were to be instructers of mending them to God, exhorted them the people, were dispersed all over the to be steadfast in their obedience land. Six of these cities of the Levites, to his word. How pleasing it must three on each side Jordan, were ap

have been to the mind of this great pointed to be cities of refuge; to which captain, thus to dismiss every man to any one who had accidentally killed his inheritance. Nor did the Israelites another might flee from the avenger of forget their leader: they gave him an blood. These were, Hebron, in Judah; allotment for his family—Timnath SeShechem, in Ephraim; Kedesh, in rah, in the territory of Ephraim, to which Naphtali: and on the other side Jordan, tribe he belonged. It was as honorable Beza, in Reuben; Ramoth, in Gad; and in him to ask no more, as it was in Golan, in Manasseh. They were about them freely to accord him his wishes. fifty miles apart; so that the unhappy He was thus in a central place, some manslayer, in every place, might have a ten miles from where the tabernacle was chance of saving his life.

set up

for "

A serious misunderstanding, which in find one who was his equal in every the end was honorable to both parties, respect.

His virtues were numerous took place soon after the Reubenites and distinguished, and his defects few had returned. They builded a high and but little marked. altar on the east of Jordan, as a me- There is a difficulty in ascertaining morial of their deliverance, and not for the exact time which elapsed between sacrifice. The ten tribes were alarmed his leading Israel into Canaan and his at this, lest it was for idolatry, and death. Probably this might be about would bring down divine vengeance on twenty-five or twenty-six years. If we all. They assembled, sent a deputation, take one year for the first campaign, headed by the high priest, to remon. five or six for the second, and one or strate; the Reubenites explained their two for the survey and settlement,—then motives, and appealed to God for their eighteen or twenty cannot be too long sincerity. This pacified their zealous a long time." This agrees with brethren, who returned rejoicing that the testimony of Josephus, and the God was among them. The altar was opinion of many of the learned; and called “ Ed,” or, a witness. How hap would make him to be eighty-three or py would have been their children's lot, eighty-four when Moses died. Much if they had ever displayed this just dread here, as in our next paper, must be conof offending God!

jectural, as to chronology; and, indeed, Time now rolled on, and found the the wonder is that it is not more so Israelites cultivating their fields, and rather than less. improving their towns, and occupying A few very important reflections will their newly-acquired territory. They conclude our present exercise. had cities which they did not build; 1. What a signal example the devineyards and oliveyards they did not struction of the Canaanites presents of plant; and a land flowing with milk the evil of idolatry. God hates it; and and honey. Their remaining enemies in this way he taught his people and were weakened, or kept in strong holds the world his abhorrence of it. These through fear; so that Israel suffered nations were guilty and incorrigible; all no evil from them.

the crimes that can be mentioned sprung “A long time” had elapsed in this out of their idolatry; and though they happy and tranquil manner, when had been favored with more light and Joshua was become old, and the time knowledge than others, they had abused of his death drew near. He then assem- them. God might have destroyed them bled the elders and judges of the tribes, by the elements, as the old world and and exhorted them to continue in the Sodom; or by pestilence; but he chose service of God; and assured them of the sword of his people, that their minds God's protection and presence, if they might acquire an abhorrence of the were obedient; but warned them, if they great evils for which they were cast out. formed alliances with the people left in He prohibited his people from formthe land, that God would not drive ing an alliance with them, on pain of them out, but, through them and their his displeasure; and enjoined their total abominable idolatries, would bring great extermination. This displeasure was evil upon his disobedient people. He manifested against them afterwards, for briefly recapitulated God's dealings with not fully executing his just commands. them, declared his own determination They were also enjoined to exterminate to serve the Lord, led them then to renew and destroy, without pity, a near friend, their covenant with God, and set up a a brother, a city, or even a tribe of their stone for a witness of this solemn trans- own, if any of them fell into this sin. action.

Hence the conduct of the people Joseph's bones were then buried in towards Reuben and Gad, when they had Jacob's burying-place. They had most builded an altar east of Jordan. How likely been kept by Manasseh on the could the Most High more signally other side Jordan until this time. have displayed his just displeasure at Joshua soon after died, being 110 years the abominable idolatries of men ? old, the same age as Joseph, his great 2. Spiritually, we are taught by this progenitor, had attained. He was a narrative to hold no compromise with great and distinguished leader; and, after sin. The war against it must be one Joshua, we shall long look before we of extermination; and it is only as we

fight on this principle that we succeed. separation, who led them on to its posAnd let each christian professor see session, and gave to each one his porthat he is not an Achan in the camp. tion, must surely be a type of the One sinner destroyeth much good. Captain of our salvation,” who leads

3. How proper it seems for us, like those that trust in him through the the Hebrews, frequently to renew our Jordan of death to the better and covenant. Here we have two solemn heavenly country above. O let us all and public renewals of it; when they enlist under his banners, follow his enter the land, and when they assembled standard, fight his battles, and “quit at Joshua's last call.

ourselves like men;" and then we shall 4. Joshua must be noticed, ere we realize and enjoy the promise, “ To him conclude, as a remarkable type of Christ. that overcometh will I grant to sit If Canaan was a type of Heaven, he with me in my throne, even as I also who was the captain of the Lord's host, overcame, and am set down with my who his led people through the river of Father on his throne.”

OBSERVATIONS
Upon some of the principal Jewish and Heathen Princes and Governors

mentioned in the New Testament.

(Continued from page 235.) VI. The accuracy of the statements appears very evident from the Jewish which the evangelists have made, in re- Antiquities. During his youth he lived ference to Herod the great, and those of with his mother Bernice, at Rome, his own sons, whom, in the course of their where he was honored with the acnarration, they have been led to men- quaintance of the imperial family. After tion, having been shown, in the obser- the death of his mother, having become vations which we have already made, peculiarly embarrassed through his exwe go on to consider any occasional travagant way of living, and the imnotice they may have taken of some of moderate presents he made, chiefly to his more remote descendants. St. Luke, the freedmen of the emperor, to secure (Acts xii. 1—3) relates, “Now, about their favor, he was obliged to leave the that time, Herod the king stretched city; and from this period to the end of forth his hand to vex certain of the Tiberius' reign he led a very various church; and he killed James, the and miserable life, sometimes dwelling brother of John, with the sword; and, in one city, and sometimes making his because he saw it pleased the Jews, he home in another; now enjoying the proceeded further to take Peter also.” friendship, then incurring the displea

Now, the object which we contem- sure, of the Roman emperor; alternately plate, and which must not be lost sight suffering the extremes of abundance and of by us, is, to ascertain what con- poverty, imprisonment and liberty: but, firmation this fact, and others of a like when Caius Caligula, the great grandson nature, receive from Jewish or heathen of Tiberius, had ascended the throne of historians. This person, whom St. Luke Rome, the scene changed, his wandercalls Herod, Josephus calls Agrippa. ings and miseries terminated, and a The probability is, that, in this case, as glorious prospect of honor and happiness well as in the one which occurred in our opened before him. No sooner had last communication, his name was Herod Caligula become sovereign of Rome than Agrippa, and that St. Luke calls him he liberated Agrippa from an imprisonHerod, as this was the family name,

ment which he had long endured, sent and Josephus Agrippa, for distinction's for him to his palace, with his own sake. He was the brother of Herodias, hands put a crown upon his head, and whose unlawful marriage with Herod appointed him king of the tetrarchy of Antipas has already engaged our atten- Philip, intending also to give him the tion, son of Aristobulus, and grandson tetrarchy of Lysanias.* Jos. Antiq. lib. of Herod the great. That the sacred

xviii. c. 7. historian is right in calling him “king," and representing him as king of Judea, * At page 235, our readers may recollect,

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